COAL AND PETROLEUM

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COAL AND PETROLEUM

Resources:

Resources Resources: Any thing that can be used by to satisfy the human use. Anything that has a value. Value means worth.

Types of Resources:

Types of Resources Types of Resources: Resources are classified in to three types they are: 1) Natural Resources 2) Human made Resources 3) Human Resources

Natural Resources :

Natural Resources Natural Resources: Resources that are drawn from Nature and used without much modification are called Natural Resources. The air we breathe, the water in our rivers& lakes, the soils, natural resources. Many of these resources are free gifts of nature and can be used directly. In some cases tools and technology may be needed to use a natural resource in the best possible way.

Human Made Resources:

Human Made Resources Human Made Resources: Sometimes, natural substances become resources only when their original form has been changed. Iron ore was not a resource until people learnt to extract iron from it. People use natural resources to make buildings, bridges, roads, machinery and vehicles, which are known as Human made resources. Technology is also a human made resource.

Human Resources:

Human Resources Human Resources: People can make the best use of nature to create more resources when they have the knowledge, skill and the technology to do so. That is why human beings are a special resource. People are human resources. Education and health help in making people a valuable resource. Improving the quality of people’s skills so that they are able to create more resources is known as human resource development.

Classes of Natural Resources:

Classes of Natural Resources Classes of Natural Resources: Natural resources are classified in to different groups: Inexhaustible Natural Resources Exhaustible Natural Resources

Inexhaustible Natural Resources:

Inexhaustible Natural Resources These resources are present in unlimited quantity in Nature and are not likely to be exhausted by the human activities. Examples: Sunlight, Air etc.

Exhaustible Natural Resources:

Exhaustible Natural Resources Exhaustible Natural Resources: The amount of these resources in the nature is limited. They can be exhausted by human activities. Examples: Forests, Wildlife, Minerals, Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas etc.

Fossils :

Fossils Fossils: The remains of dead plants & animals which are buried under the rocks millions of years ago are called fossils.

Fossil Fuels:

Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels: the fuels formed by the dead plants & animals are called fossil fuels.

Coal :

Coal Coal : Coal is as hard as stone and is black in colour. Coal is one of the fuels used to cook food. Earlier, it was used in railway engines to produce steam to run the engine. It is also used in thermal power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used as a fuel in various industries.

Story of Coal:

Story of Coal About 300 million years ago the earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes, like flooding, these forests got buried under the soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got slowly converted to coal. As coal contains mainly carbon, the slow process of conversion of dead vegetation in to coal is called carbonisaton. Since it was formed from the remains of vegetation, coal is called a fossil fuel. When coal heated in air, coal burns and produces mainly carbon dioxide gas.

Carbonisaton :

Carbonisaton As Coal contains mainly carbon, the slow process of conversion of dead vegetation in to coal is called carbonisaton.

Destructive Distillation:

Destructive Distillation The process of heating of wood or coal in the absence of air is called Destructive Distillation.

Coal Mine:

Coal Mine

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Coal is processed in industry to get some useful products such as: 1) Coke 2) Coal Tar 3) Coal Gas

Coke:

Coke Coke: Coke is a tough, porous and black substance. It is an almost pure form of carbon. Coke is used in the manufacture of steel and extraction of many metals.

Coal Tar:

Coal Tar Coal Tar: Coal tar is a black, thick liquid with an unpleasant smell. It is a mixture of about 200 substances. Products obtained from coal tar are used as starting materials for manufacturing various substances used in everyday life and in industry, like synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints, photographic materials, roofing materials, etc. Interestingly , naphthalene balls used to repel moths and other in sects are also obtained from coal tar. Did you know? These days, bitumen, a petroleum product, is used in place of coal-tar for metalling the roads.

Coal Gas:

Coal Gas Coal Gas: Coal gas is obtained during the processing of coal to get coke. It is used as a fuel in many industries situated near the coal processing plants. Did you know? Coal gas was used for street lighting for the first time in London in 1810 and in New York around 1820. now a days, it is used as a source of heat rather than light.

Where did the coal mines there in the World? :

Where did the coal mines there in the World?

Petroleum:

Petroleum Petroleum: Petrol is used as a fuel in light automobiles such as motor cycles/scooters and cars. Heavy motor vehicles like trucks and tractors run on diesel. Petrol and diesel are obtained from a natural resource called Petroleum.

Bitumen :

Bitumen It is a petroleum product which is now used in the road surfacing in place of coal tar

Black Gold:

Black Gold Due to great commercial importance of petroleum, it is also called as ‘Black Gold’.

Petrochemicals :

Petrochemicals The useful substances that are obtained from petroleum and natural gas are as Petrochemicals.

Story of Petroleum :

Story of Petroleum Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. As these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.

Refining of Petroleum:

Refining of Petroleum Petroleum is a dark oily liquid. It has an unpleasant odour. It is a mixture of various constituents such as petroleum gas, petrol, diesel, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, etc. the process of separating the various constituents/fractions of petroleum is known as refining. It is carried out in a petroleum refinery.

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S.NO. Constituents of Petroleum Uses 1 Petroleum Gas in Liquid form (LPG) Fuel for home and industry 2 Petrol Motor fuel, aviation fuel, solvent for dry cleaning 3 Kerosene Fuel for stoves, lamps and for jet aircrafts 4 Diesel Fuel for heavy motor vehicles, electric generators 5 Lubricating oil Lubrication 6 Paraffin wax Ointments, candles, Vaseline etc. 7 Bitumen Paints, road surfacing

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Did you know? Many useful substances are obtained from Petroleum and Natural gas. These are termed as ‘Petrochemicals’. These are used in the manufacture of detergents, fibers (polyester, nylon, acrylic etc.), polythene and other man made plastics. Hydrogen gas obtained from natural gas, is used in the production of fertilisers (urea). Due to its great commercial importance, petroleum is also called ‘black gold’.

Where did the Petroleum Mines there in the World?:

Where did the Petroleum Mines there in the World?

Natural Gas:

Natural Gas Natural gas is a very important fossil fuel because it is easy to transport through pipes. Natural gas is stored under high pressure as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). CNG is used for power generation. It is now being used as a fuel for transport vehicles because it is less polluting. It is a cleaner fuel. The great advantage of CNG is that it can be used directly for burning in homes and factories where it can be supplied through pipes. Such a network pipelines exists in Vadodara (Gujarat), some parts of Delhi and others places.

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Natural gas is also used as a starting material for the manufacture of a number chemicals and fertilisers. India has vast reserves of natural gas. In our country, natural gas has been found in Tripura, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and in the Krishna Godavari delta.

Some Natural Resources are Limited:

Some Natural Resources are Limited Some natural resources are exhaustible like fossil fuels, forests, minerals etc. Coal & Petroleum are fossil fuels. It required the dead organisms millions of years to get converted into these fuels. On the other hand, the known reserves of these will last only a few hundred years. Moreover, burning of these fuels is a major cause of air pollution. Their use is also linked to global warming. It is therefore necessary that we use these fuels only when absolutely necessary.

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This will result in better environment, smaller risk of global warming and their availability for a longer period of time. In India, the Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) advises people how to save petrol/diesel while driving. Their tips are drive at a constant and moderate speed as far as possible, switch off the engine at traffic lights or at a place where you have to wait, ensure correct tyre pressure ensure regular maintenance of the vehicle.

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PREPARED BY P.VASISTHA

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Guided By PULLA RAO SIR

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