ppt of protozoa

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Presentation Transcript

Protozoa : 

Protozoa

Characteristics of Protozoa : 

Characteristics of Protozoa Unicellular Organization Since Protozoa are single celled they often rely on other organisms for some necessities Reproduction: Asexual: binary fission: cytoplasmic division follows mitosis, producing two organisms budding: multiple fission or schizogeny: cell or organism is split into many new cells or organisms Sexual

Reproduction : 

Reproduction

Symbiosis: an intimate association between two organisms : 

Symbiosis: an intimate association between two organisms Three types of symbiosis: Parasitism: one organism lives in or on a second organism, called the host. the host is harmed, but usually survives Commensalism: one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed Mutualism: both organisms benefit from the relationship

Protozoan Taxonomy : 

Protozoan Taxonomy Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Mastigophora Subphylum Sarcodina Phylum Apicomplexa Phylum Ciliophora

SARCOMASTIGOPHORA : 

SARCOMASTIGOPHORA

Phylum Sarcomastigophora: 18,000 species, largest protozoan phylum : 

Phylum Sarcomastigophora: 18,000 species, largest protozoan phylum Characteristics: Unicellular or Colonial Locomotion by flagella, pseudopodia, or both Autotrophic, saprozoic, or heterotrophic Single type of Nucleus Sexual Reproduction (usually)

LOCOMOTION : 

LOCOMOTION

Subphylum Mastigophora: locomotion by one or more flagella : 

Subphylum Mastigophora: locomotion by one or more flagella

Subphylum Sarcodina: locomotion and food gathered by pseudopodia (false foot)- includes the Amoeba : 

Subphylum Sarcodina: locomotion and food gathered by pseudopodia (false foot)- includes the Amoeba

Pseudopodia- temporary cell extension used for movement and gathering food : 

Pseudopodia- temporary cell extension used for movement and gathering food Types: Lobopodia: broad extensions used for locomotion and engulfing food Filopodia: provide constant two-way streaming that delivers food in a conveyor belt fashion Reticulopodia: similar to filopodia, except they extend out and form net-like series of extensions Axopodia: thin, filamentous and supported by a central axis of microtubules

The AMOEBA : 

The AMOEBA

APICOMPLEXA : 

APICOMPLEXA

Phylum Apicomplexa: : 

Phylum Apicomplexa: Characterisitics: All are parasites Apical Complex for penetrating host cells Single type of Nucleus Usually No Cilia and Flagella Life cycles that typically include asexual and sexual phases

Malaria caused by Plasmodium : 

Malaria caused by Plasmodium

Phylum Ciliophora: : 

Phylum Ciliophora: Characteristics: Cilia for locomotion and for the generation of feeding currents of water. Relatively rigid pellicle and more or less fixed shape Distinct cytostome (mouth) Structure Dimorphic nuclei, typically larger macronuclei and one more smaller micronuclei

Ciliophora : 

Ciliophora

Locomotion: cilia : 

Locomotion: cilia Cilia are generally similar to flagella but are much shorter, more numerous and widely distributed over the surface of the organism cilia have evolved into more specialized structures Trichocysts: used for protection, rodlike or oval structures that can be discharged and stuck to predators

Trichocysts : 

Trichocysts

Body types : 

Body types

Nutrition: : 

Nutrition: some ciliates possess an oral groove cilia sweep food particles down this groove toward the cytopharynx where a food vacuole forms some ciliates even possess an anal pore which is used to remove waste from the organism

Genetic Control and Reproduction: : 

Genetic Control and Reproduction: Ciliate have two kinds of Nuclei Macronuclei: large polyploid nucleus that regulates daily metabolic activities Micronuclei: one or more small nucleus which are genetic reserve of the cell Ciliates can reproduce asexually by transverse binary fission and occasionally by budding Ciliates can reproduce sexually by conjugation

Conjugation: : 

Conjugation: Random contact brings individuals of opposite mating types together (called conjugants) Meiosis results in four haploid pronuclei Three pronuclei and the macronucleus degenerate. Mitosis and mutual exchange of pronuclei is followed by fusion of the pronuclei. Conjugants separate. Nuclear divisions that restore nuclear characteristics of species follow. Cytoplasmic divisions may accompany these events

Conjugation : 

Conjugation