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SKIN CARE PRODUCTS. By:- V arun M Gandhi. 1 st year, M.Pharm , Q.A Department, SDCP, Mangalore.


CONTENT. Introduction. Classification. Raw materials. Evaluation.


INTRODUCTION. They are used as cleansing, moisturising and beautifying agent. They help in enhancing attractiveness of the body. They help in altering the appearance of the body without affecting its functions. Sunscreen products helps in protecting the body from UV rays and treating sunburns. Acne, wrinkles, dark circles under eyes and other skin imperfections are treated or repaired by treatment products.


CLASSIFICATION SKIN CARE PRODUCT. E.g :- Face powder. Vanishing cream. Skin lotion. Lipstick. Body powder. Cold cream. Astringent Rouges. Prickly heat powder. All purpose cream. lotion. Face pack. Powder Cream. Lotion. colourant . compacts


POWDER. Powders have different physical properties when compared to the liquid preparations. They have very fine particle size, which helps in producing large surface area per unit weight. This helps in proper dispersion of powder, which covers the large surface area of the body. Various types of powder are body powder, face powder, compact medicated powder.


FORMULATION/ RAW MATERIALS FOR POWDER 1) Covering material:- Able to cover small imperfections, enlarged pores and minor blemishes of skin. e.g :- Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Zinc stearate , Kaolin etc. 2) Adhesive material:- Are helpful in imparting adhesion. e.g :-Talc, Magnesium and Calcium salts of myristic acid etc. 3) Slip material:- Helps in easy application and spreading of the powder on the skin, which in turn provide smoothness to the skin. e.g :- Talc, Zinc stearate , Magnesium stearate etc.

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4) Adsorbent material:- Should be able to eliminate shine from the skin surface by absorption secretion of the skin. e.g :- Colloidal kaolin, starch, bentonite etc. 5) Peach like finish materials:- Help in imparting peach like appearance, which provide bloom to skin. e.g :-Rice starch, Maize starch, powdered silk. 6) Material imparting frosted look:-It is capable of producing translucent lustre and shiny look to the skin. e.g :-Guanine, Bismuth, Oxychloride etc.

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7) Colouring material:- They are used for imparting colour. e.g :-Iron oxide, Ultramarine, Organic lake and pigments etc. 8) Perfumes :- To provide fragrance to the preparation. e.g :-Flowery fragrance and synthetic odour. I)FACE POWDER :-These powder have the ability to complement the skin colour by providing velvety finish to it. It should impart smooth finish to skin. It should mask the imperfections visible on the skin.

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II)Compacts :- Loose powders or dry powders are compressed in the form of cake along with the binders by compaction process, in order to form compact powders. They applied on the face with the help of powder puff. The pressure used in compaction process process is an important factor in the formulation of compacts . Ingredients Quantity for 100gm category Talc 63 gm Slip character Kaolin 20 gm Covering material Calcium carbonate 5 gm Absorbent Zinc oxide 5 gm Covering material Zinc stearate 5 gm Slip character Magnesium carbonate 1 gm Absorbent Colour 0.5 gm Coloring agent


FORMULATION OF COMPACT Ingredient Quantity for 100 gm category Talc 69 gm Slip character Kaolin 18 gm Covering material Titanium dioxide 8 gm Covering material Zinc stearate 5 gm Slip character Colour Q.S Colouring agent Perfume Q.S Flavouring agent Tragacanth Q.S Binder Gum arabic 1 gm Water soluble binder Glycerol 5 gm Emulsion binder Water 94 gm Vehicle Paraben Q.S Preservative.


III)BODY POWDER/ MEDICATED POWDER These powders are most widely used preparations for multiple purposes. They contain covering materials, adhesives, absorbency materials, slip materials, antiseptics and perfumes. The main function of body powder is absorption of perspiration (sweat). Due to the presence of fat film in the body powders, they adhere to the surface of the skin. Medicated powder contains the same ingredients, additionally they contain antiseptic or medicated material.


FORMULATION Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Category Talc 75 gm Slip character Colloidal kaolin 10 gm Adhesive material Colloidal silica 5 gm Binding agent Magnesium carbonate 5 gm Adsorbent Aluminium stearate 4 gm Metallic compound Boric acid 0.3 gm Antiseptic Perfume 0.7 gm Flavouring agent


EVALUATION OF POWDER . Shade test :- The variation of colour shade is determined and controlled. Colour dispersion test :- with the help of magnifying glass, segregation or bleeding of colour is observed. Pay-off test :- check the adhesive property of powder with the puff, mainly used for compact powder. Flow property test :- Measured by measuring the angle of repose. Mainly for body powder. Particle size determination:- with the help of microscope or seive analysis. Moisture content :- can be determine by using this formula, Moisture content(%)= weight of water in sample X 5 weight of dry sample


CREAM Creams are semisolid emulsions which contain mixtures of oil and water. Their consistency varies between liquids and solids. Salve(medical oinment for soothing purpose) and ungent (soothing products) preparation in earlier days led to the development of cleansing and cold creams. Different types are, Cold cream Vanishing cream All purpose cream


I) COLD CREAM. These type of cream are water-in-oil type of emulsions. Formulation:- Ingredient s Quantity for 100 gm Category White beeswax 20 gm Emollient Mineral oil 50 gm Lubricant Distilled water 28.8 gm Vehicle Borax 0.7 gm Buffer Perfume 0.5 gm Odour


II) VANISHING CREAM. They are oil in water type of emulsion. When applied on the surface of skin, they spread as a thin oil less film which not visible to naked eye, hence they are called as vanishing cream. They are used to hold powder on the skin as well as to improve adhesion. They should be pure white in colour . Formulation :- Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Category Stearic acid 24 gm Lubricant Potassium hydroxide 1 gm Softening agent Water 64 gm Vehicle Glycerin 10.5 gm Humectant Perfume 0.5 gm odour


III) ALL-PURPOSE CREAM They are oily in nature but non-greasy type. They provide protective film to the skin. They make the rough surface of the skin smooth. As a foundation cream to provide a foundation base for make up. As a cleansing cream and liquefy easily.

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EVALUATION:- The evaluation can be carried out by two methods, In-vitro methods In-vivo methods. Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Category Wool alcohol 6 gm Emollient Hard paraffin 24 gm Soothing agent White soft paraffin 10 gm Emollient Liquid paraffin 60 gm Emollient Perfume Q.S Odour Butylated hydroxy anisole Q.S Antioxidant


a) IN-VITRO METHODS Tensile strength tester :- For determining the tensile property of the excised stratum corneum of the skin. Hargan’s gas bearing electro dynamometer(GBE) :- Helpful in determining and monitoring the viscoelastic behaviour of the skin. Gravimetric analytical method:- Helps in establishing relationship between water content present in stratum corneum and relative humidity. Thermal analytical method:- Various methods like DSC, TMA and TGA are used in order to provide information about the effect of temperature which cause changes in stratum corneum .


b) IN-VIVO METHODS 1) Transpirometry :-Helps in measuring trans epidermal water loss of the skin which helps in providing information on moisturizing potential. 2) Scanning electron microscopy :- Skin replicas are used in this method to know the effects of topical preparations on the skin condition i.e dry and rough skin. 3) Sensitivity test :-These test are performed in order to measure the irritancy, sensitization potential and phototoxicity of the skin.


LOTION Lotion is generally in liquid or semi-liquid preparation. They are generally classified into 3 groups, Sunscreen preparation. Palliative preparation. Simulative preparation.


I) SUN SCREEN PREPARATION Be stable to heat, light and perspiration. Be non-toxic and non-irritant. Be readily soluble in suitable vehicles. Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Category Homomenthyl salicylate 8 gm Polymer Mineral oil 92 gm Plasticizer perfume Q.S Odour


II) PALLIATIVE PREPARATION These preparation are used for the relief of irrritation and other problems resulting from sunburn. Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Calamine 15 gm Zinc oxide 5 gm Camphor 1 gm Alcohol 10 gm Glycerin 10 gm Rose water 59 gm Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Q.S


III) SIMULATIVE PREPARATION They are term as artificial suntan preparations. The purpose of enchanced colour may be to prevent skin damage by absorption of erythemal radiation or to indicate the well being of the health. Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Dihydroxyacetone 3 gm Propylene glycol 6 gm Alcohol 3 gm Water 88 gm Perfume Q.S Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Q.S


EVALUATION. Spectrophotometric evaluation :-To evaluate the u.v absorption ability of the sun screen lotion compounds. Erythemal dosage :- To estiamte the erythemally effective radiation, transmitted by suntan preparation. In-vivo skin testing :- this is a direct test on animal skin particularly rabbit, the site used is either abdomen or backside, as these sites have minimum sensitivity.


COLOURANTS The skin colourants are also called ‘Beauty Aids’, but they are different from other cosmetics. The sole purpose of skin colourants is alteration of appearance for enhanced attractiveness. whereas other cosmetics have other specific functions of maintenance or promotion of the skin health along with or without decorative function. Skin colourants or beauty aids must not damage the skin. Decorative preparations are used to hide small blemishes or symptoms of aging.


LIPSTICK Lipstick may be defined as dispersion of the colouring matter in a base consisting of a suitable perfumes and flavours moulded in the form of sticks to impart attractive gloss and colour , when applied on the lips. Formulation:- waxes:- They are responsible for the final structure of the product by solidifying the liquid matrix. e.g :- white beeswax, ozokerite , carnauba wax etc. Liquid component:- To provide glossy surface. e.g :- Mineral oil, castor oil, vegetable oil, glycol, water etc.

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3) Softening agent:- they are used to increase the spreadability by softening the lipstick e.g :- Anhydrous lanolin, laonlin cocoabutter , lecithin, petrolatum etc. 4) Colouring agent:- colour may be imparted to the lips either by staining the lip with a dye stuff colour or by covering the lips with colouring layers. e.g :- Carmine, dyestuff stain, pigmented stain, lakes etc 5) Pearlescent pigment:- use to impart pearl like appearance to the product when applied to the lips. e.g :- Guanine crystals, Bismuth oxychloride etc

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6) Opacifying agent:- used for opacifying or whitening of lipstick. e.g :- Titanium dioxide etc. 7) Perfumeries:-Light floral fragrance can be used in lipsticks. e.g :- cinnamon oil, lavender oil etc. 8) Miscellaneous agent:- Preservatives:- used to increase life period of product by reducing the microbial growth. e.g :- Methyl and propyl paraben etc. b) Antioxidants:- used to prevent oxidation of the ingredients. E.g :- BHA, BHT, Tocopherol etc.


FORMULATION Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Category Castor oil 54 gm Dissolving liquid Anhydrous lanolin 11 gm Emollient Candelilla wax 9 gm Hardening agent Isopropyl myristate 8 gm Blending agent White beeswax 5 gm Stiffening agent Carnauba wax 3 gm Provides rigidity Ozokerite wax 3 gm Increase melting point Eosin 2 gm Dye Lakes 5 gm Color Rose flavour Q.S Perfume Tocopherol Q.S Antioxident Paraben Q.S Preservative


EVALUATION Melting point determination test :- The determination of melting point is done in order to determine the storage characteristics of the product. Breaking load point test :- To determine the strength and hardness of the lipstick. Test for rancidity :- Can be done by using hydrogen peroxide and determining its peroxide number. Determination of thixotropic charater :- to determine the uniform viscosity of base.


ROUGES Rouge can be defined as the cosmetic preparation used to apply a colour to the cheeks. Formulation:- Ingredients Quantity for 100 gm Zinc stearate 14.5 gm Rice starch 14.5 gm Talc 55 gm Pigments 14 gm Perfume 2 gm


EVALUATION Melting point :- It is determined by capillary tube method. Colour dispersion :- It is checked under microscope and no particle, above 50µ, should be there. Aging stability :- product is kept at over 40 0 c for a one month period noting the changes and comparing with the fresh product. Container compatibility :- Compatibility of the product with the plastic is to be checked.



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