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Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: -Varun C N TrematodesPowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 2PowerPoint Presentation: 3 important species S hematobium S mansoni S japonicum Schistosoma Varun- Trematodes 3PowerPoint Presentation: Characters Unisexual Males are shorter and stouter than females Male possess a gynaecophoric canal, for holding the female Suckers are armed with spine Non Operculated eggs Adult Worms reside on Venous plexuses of definitive host Varun- Trematodes 4PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 5PowerPoint Presentation: Feature S hematobium S mansoni S japonicum Male Covered with minute tuberculation Covered with conspicuous tuberculation Covered with minute acuminate spine Female Ovary Posterior 1/3 rd of body Anterior half of body Middle of body Eggs discharged in Urine Faeces Faeces Infective form Fork-tailed cercariae that can penetrate intact skin Habitat Veins of vesical and pelvic plexus Mesentric vein draining sigmoido -rectal region Mesentric vein draining Ileo - cecal regions Definitive Host Man Man Man and Domsetic animals Intermediate Host Bulinus Species Biomphalaria Sp Oncomelania Sp Varun- Trematodes 6PowerPoint Presentation: Bulinus Species Biomphalaria Sp Oncomelania Sp Varun- Trematodes 7PowerPoint Presentation: Egg Feature S hematobium S mansoni S japonicum Shape Elongated Elongated Oval Shell Thin and Smooth Thin and Smooth Smooth thick shell Spine Terminal Lateral Small lateral Knob Taken from: http://www.kstate.edu/parasitology/625tutorials/Trematodes01.html Varun- Trematodes 8PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 9PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 10PowerPoint Presentation: Life Cycle Definitive Host-Human Intermediate Host- Snails Mode of infection- Exposure to Free swimming cercaria Infective form- Cercaria Mode of entry of Cercaria- Active penetration Intermediate forms- Miracidium Sporocyst (1 st and 2 nd Generation) Cercaria Varun- Trematodes 11PowerPoint Presentation: Clinical Manifestations: Katayama fever High fever Hepato -splenomegaly Lymphadenopathy Eosinophilia Granulomatous inflammation Bladder cancer Paddy field dermatitis Varun- Trematodes 12PowerPoint Presentation: Case of Hepato-splenomegaly due to schistosomiasis http://www.examiner.com/ Hematuria Varun- Trematodes 13PowerPoint Presentation: Laboratory Diagnosis: For, S. japonicum and S. mansoni detection of the eggs in the feces after an iodine staining or Formol-ether concentration method. For S. haematobium terminal urine should be collected as the terminal drops contain a large proportion of the eggs. The urine can either be centrifuged and the deposit examined microscopically for ova. Eggs can sometimes be found in seminal fluid in males. Rectal swab examination Biopsy samples and histology Serology Varun- Trematodes 14PowerPoint Presentation: Prophylaxis Prevent water pollution Eradication of Molluscan host Don’t walk in waters without proper protection Treat the infected Varun- Trematodes 15PowerPoint Presentation: Fasciola Hepatica (Liver Fluke) Varun- Trematodes 16PowerPoint Presentation: Adult worm: Large leaf shaped fluke Anterior end is distinct with a conical projection Two Suckers- Oral and Ventral The intestinal ceca , testes and vitelline follicles are branched. Life span- 10 Years Can produce up to 25000 eggs per day Eggs: Large, elliptical Yellowish brown Bile stained Operculated Contains immature larva Cannot be distinguished from F buski Varun- Trematodes 17PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 18PowerPoint Presentation: Life Cycle: Definitive Host- Sheep, Cattle, Human First Intermediate host- Snails (Lymnaea) Second Intermediate host- Aquatic vegetation Infective form- Metacercaria Mode of infection- Ingestion Varun- Trematodes 19PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 20PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 21PowerPoint Presentation: Siamese Watercress Curry Varun- Trematodes 22PowerPoint Presentation: In the chronic phase of fascioliasis adults in the large biliary ducts cause liver inflammation and obstruction of the biliary fluid. During the migration of the larvae (this acute phase of the disease lasts many weeks) symptoms include: diarrhea eosinophilia (high number of white blood cells) fever nausea stomach ache vomiting. Varun- Trematodes 23PowerPoint Presentation: Lab Diagnosis: Detection of the eggs in the feces after an iodine staining or Formol-ether concentration method. Moderate to high eosinophilia Immunodiagnostic tests Surgically remove theorganism and then confirm the species Varun- Trematodes 24PowerPoint Presentation: Fasciolopsis buski Varun- Trematodes 25PowerPoint Presentation: Adult worm It is the largest trematode infecting humans Fleshy, dark red, leaf shaped structure No cephalic cone Two Suckers- Oral and Ventral The intestinal ceca , testes and vitelline follicles are branched Life span- 6 months Can produce up to 25000 eggs per day Eggs Large, elliptical Yellowish brown Bile stained Operculated Contains immature larva Cannot be distinguished from F hepatica Varun- Trematodes 26PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 27PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 28PowerPoint Presentation: Life Cycle: Definitive Host- Human, Pigs First Intermediate host- Snails (Segmentina, Hippeutis) Second Intermediate host- Aquatic vegetation (Water caltrop) Infective form- Metacercaria Mode of infection- Ingestion Varun- Trematodes 29PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 30PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes 31PowerPoint Presentation: Lab Diagnosis: Detection of the eggs in the feces after an iodine staining or Formol-ether concentration method. Moderate to high eosinophilia Immunodiagnostic tests- ELISA Surgically remove the organism and then confirm the species Varun- Trematodes 32PowerPoint Presentation: Some more…… Varun- Trematodes 33PowerPoint Presentation: Clonorchis sinensis (Oriental liver fluke) Varun- Trematodes 34PowerPoint Presentation: Paragonimus westermani Varun- Trematodes 35PowerPoint Presentation: Gastrodiscoides hominis Varun- Trematodes 36PowerPoint Presentation: Opisthorchis felineus Varun- Trematodes 37PowerPoint Presentation: Varun- Trematodes Thank you for your kind attention You can also follow me at my blog. www.microboids.net 38 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.