hybrid production in redgram

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Heterosis Breeding And Hybrid Seed Production In Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) Presented By : Varsha Vinayak Gaitonde PAL B 1214 (GPB) :

Heterosis Breeding And Hybrid Seed Production In Pigeon Pea ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh ) Presented By : Varsha Vinayak Gaitonde PAL B 1214 (GPB) 2

Introduction:

Introduction Pigeonpea is an often cross pollinated (20–70%) crop with diploid chromosome number 2n=2x=22, and genome size 858 Mbp . It is a short lived perennial shrub and traditionally cultivated as an annual crop in developing countries. It is an important legume crop mostly cultivated in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean region. India is probably the primary centre of origin of pigeon pea. 3

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The pigeon pea also known as tropical green pea,  kadios , Congo pea,  gungo pea,  gunga pea, or no-eye pea is a member of the family Fabaceae . Important legume crop of rainfed agriculture in the semiarid tropics. Pigeon peas are cultivated in more than 25 tropical and subtropical countries, either as a sole crop or intermixed with cereals. The Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and Central America are the world's three main pigeon pea-producing regions. Being a legume, the pigeon pea enriches soil through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. 4

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The crop is cultivated on marginal land by resource-poor farmers, who commonly grow traditional medium- and long-duration (5–11 months) landraces. The traditional pigeon pea cultivars and landraces are long duration types. large temporal variation (90–300 d) for maturity. Pigeon peas are very drought resistant, so can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. It is cultivated worldwide on 4.92 million hectares with an annual production of 3.65 Mt and productivity of 898 kg ha -1 . 5

Uses…….:

Uses……. Pigeon peas are both a food crop (dried peas, flour, or green vegetable peas) and a forage/cover crop. They contain high levels of protein and the important amino acids methionine, lysine, and tryptophan. In India, split pigeon peas ( toor   dal ) are one of the most popular pulses, being an important source of protein in a mostly vegetarian diet. Fresh young pods are eaten as a vegetable. In Ethiopia, not only the pods, but also the young shoots and leaves are cooked and eaten. In Thailand, pigeon peas are grown as a host for scale insects which produce  lac . Pigeon peas are in some areas an important crop for green manure, providing up to 40 kg nitrogen per hectare. The woody stems of pigeon peas can also be used as firewood, fencing and thatch. 6

Nutritional Value…….:

Nutritional Value……. 1 Moisture 10.1 % 2 Protein 19.2 % 3 Fat 1.5 % 4 Carbohydrates 57.3 % 5 Fiber 8.1 % 6 Ash 3.8 % Smartt ,1996 7

Area and production…..:

Area and production….. World scenario Red gram ranks sixth among pulses production in world. Average world production of Red gram is at 3.65 million tonnes in the last six years (2004-2010). The area under cultivation is stagnant at 4.5 million hectares in the same period. India,Myanmar , Kenya, Uganda and Malawi are the major pegion pea producing countries. India is also major consuming country and constitutes 90% of global Red gram consumption. (www.faostat.org) 8

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(www.faostat.org) 9

Production Of Red Gram In India :

Production Of Red Gram In India India is the major pigeon pea growing country with 3.56 million hectare area (71% of global area) and 2.31 million tonnes production (76% of global production) . Red gram is second largest pulse crop in India accounting about 20 percent of total pulse production. Major red gram producing states are Maharastra , Andhra Pradesh ,Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,M P, Punjab etc.   (www.indiastat.com) 10

Origin……… :

Origin……… The cultivation of the pigeon pea goes back to 3500 years. The centre of origin is the eastern part of peninsular India, including the state of Orissa, where the closest wild relatives ( Cajanus cajanifolius ) found. In South India, Sanganakallu and Tuljapur Garhi , also had history about pegion pea cultivation 3400 years ago. From India it traveled to East Africa and West Africa . By means of the slave trade it came to the American continent, probably in the 17th century. The wild progenitor - Cajanus cajanifolius ( Vavilov 1928;van der Maesen 1980) 11

Taxonomy:

Taxonomy Kingdom : Plantae Division : Angiosperms Order : Fabales Family : Fabaceae Genus : Cajanus The genus Cajanus has 32 species, 18 of which are endemic to Asia and 13 to Australia and one to western Africa. (van der Maesen,1986). 12

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THE PLANT 13

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They are usually single stemmed, freely branching, and become woody after a few months. They have a deep taproot (to 3 m) with lateral roots and nodulated fine roots. The branches and fine twigs support abundant light-green or yellow-green foliage. Spirally arranged, silky-pubescent, trifoliolate leaves having narrowly elliptic, lanceolate or oblong leaflets. The inflorescence is a 5-12 flowered axillary racemes. Flowers are about 2 cm long, papilonaceous , yellow, the standard often being orange to purple outside. 14

HETEROSIS:

HETEROSIS 1) Superiority over parents 2 ) Confined to F1 3 ) Genetic control 4 ) Reproducible 5 ) Associate with SCA 6 ) Effect of heterozygosity 7 ) Conceals recessive genes. 15

Heterosis In Pegion Pea:

Heterosis In Pegion Pea 16 Solomon et al (1957) was the first to report 25% hybrid vigor in yield over the better parent. Nine genetic male-sterile based hybrids were tested at ICRISAT in 1977 and of these two hybrids were found to perform well with 31.6% and 23.6% heterosis over the best varietal control. Considerable non-additive genetic variation has been reported for yield and important yield components of pigeonpea ( Saxena and Sharma 1990) QMS 7, ms ICPL 288, and ms T 21 have been found to be good combiners for yield. QMS 2, QMS 9, and ms Prabhat (DT) combined well for early flowering and maturity. Good combining ability for plant height and seed size was found in ms ICPL 288.

Four Basic Requirements For Development Of Hybrid Varieties :

Four Basic Requirements For Development Of Hybrid Varieties Sufficient amount of out crossing for pollen transfer Efficient systems for genetic emasculation Easy and cheap production of quality hybrid seeds. Exploitation of heterosis / hybrid vigour . 17

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Pigeon pea is especially self pollinated crop due to their flower structure but out crossing may result from bee activities. The percent out crossing has been reported from 3% to 40%. Very high degree of out crossing up to 94.5% has been reported from Kenya. Generally 20 to 70% out-crossing in pigeonpea (ICRISAT) Sufficient Amount Of Out crossing For Pollen Transfer 18

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Flowering habit of varieties Nature of glumes Colour of petals Number of insect pollinators Location of the field in relation with insect habitat Climatic condition Factors affecting natural out crossing in pigeon pea 19

Efficient Systems For Genetic Emasculation :

Efficient Systems For Genetic Emasculation GMS CMS CGMS Self incompatibility Pistillate lines 20

Genetic Male Sterility :

Genetic Male Sterility In pigeon pea, two types of genetic male sterility, each contribute by single recessive gene has been reported. Reddy et al. (1978) identified a white translucent male sterile anther. Six male sterile plants were identified at ICRISAT in 1978, derived from totally two unrelated species. ms-3A } From ICP-1555 ms-3B ms-3C ms-4D ms-5E ms-4A from ICP-1596 21

Characteristics of male sterile line :

Characteristics of male sterile line Male sterile lines are medium in maturity (180-200 days). Non determinate branching pattern. Seed colour of ms-3A group is cream while ms-4A group is brown. Anthers of ms plants are smaller, flat and translucent with whitish scaly surface, no dehisce, dry faster than normal anthers. 22

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Male sterility is governs by a single recessive gene. Maintenance of male sterility is done by sibbing male sterile and fertile plants observed in the same population. The visible marker, i.e. White translucent anther provides an efficient way of recognizing these ms plants in the field. 24 ms ms Ms ms . . ms ms Ms ms Roughed out Male Sterile Male Fertile Male Sterile Male Fertile

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Saxena et al . (1983) reported arrow head shaped brown colour male sterile anthers. Anthers of this male sterile source are brown , shriveled, non-dehiscent and arrow shaped and contained no pollen grains. e.g. ms prabhat DT; ms prabhat NDT; Gms-1,2,7; T-15-15 etc. 25

GMS based world’s first hybrid - icph-8 :

GMS based world’s first hybrid - icph-8 MS. P. DT x ICPL 161 26

ICPH-8:

ICPH-8 Characteristics Female Male Hybrid Name MS. P. DT ICPL 161 ICPH 8 Type Determinate Indeterminate Indeterminate Growth habit Errect Semi spreading Semi spreading Plant height (cm) 90-120 150-180 160-180 Days to flowering 60-70 70-75 75-80 Days to maturity 110-120 130-135 130-140 Flower colour Yellow Yellow Yellow Grain colour Red Red Red Grain size Medium Medium Medium The first hybrid pigeon pea ICPH-8 was developed by ICRISAT by using genetic male sterility and released for cultivation in India in 1992. 27

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Genetic male-sterility (GMS) system was not accepted by farmers due to 1. The economics of large scale seed production. 2. The major drawback was rouging of fertile counterpart from the female plot, which was time consuming and labour intensive. Cytoplasmic-genic male-sterility (CMS) system usually was a better option for large scale seed production. Pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan) displays considerable natural out-crossing and now CMS lines are available with different cytoplasmic backgrounds. 28

Converting Constraint Into An Opportunity- Induction Of Cytoplasmic Genic Male Sterility :

Converting Constraint Into An Opportunity- Induction Of Cytoplasmic Genic Male Sterility Two approaches were adopted to achieve this goal. Wide hybridization Mutagenesis 29

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A. Hybrid involving wild Cajanus sp as female parent Cajanus scrabacoides Cajanus sericeus Cajanus cajanifolius Cajanus albicans B. Hybrid involving pigeon pea as female parent Cajanus acuntifolius CGMS was reported to occur in many wild species of pigeon pea. This has been successfully achieved by using wild relatives through repeated backcrossing . Wide hybridization 30

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Mutagenesis Cytoplasmic mutations caused by certain chemicals and physical mutagens leading to CMS in plants are reported in several crop species. These mutagens have been claimed to act specifically on DNA containing cytoplasmic inclusion like mitochondria and chloroplast inducing CMS mutation. (Streptomycin sulphate and sodium azide were used to induce male-sterility in pigeonpea varieties DA 11 and Pusa 9. S.K.) 31

Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility :

Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility The first breakthrough in this technology was achieved when a CMS system was developed by crossing C. cajanifolius (a wild species) and a cultivated line. This CMS system is stable across diverse environments and has an excellent fertility restoration system. After the development of a stable CMS system, several experimental hybrids were produced and evaluated. Kandalkar (2007) found that CMS-based hybrids recorded standard heterosis up to 156% for grain yield. Saxena (2007) reported yield advantage of 50 to 100% over the popular varieties/checks. 32

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CGMS Based GTH- 1 : (CMS GT288A x GTR 11) Worlds first CGMS based hybrid of pigeonpea developed by utilizing cytoplasm of wild species of Cajanus ( Cajanus scarabacoides ). This has resulted in the identification of stable CGMS lines. Subsequently fertility restoration mechanism was also discovered from two sources viz., Fertile advanced lines of  Cajanus scarabacoides  x Cajanus cajan   Pigeonpea germplasm sources 33

GTH- 1:

GTH- 1 Early maturity [ 150  + 5 days) Grain yield 32 and 42% higher than GT 101 and AKPH-4101, respectively. Non determinate growth habit Green pod with streaks at base Bold white seed Better dal recovery [87.2%] Yield potential: 2827 kg/ha 34

ICPH 2671 :

ICPH 2671 Hybrid developed on an improved A-line (ICPA 2043) showed promise with respect to yield, seed size and disease resistance. Important characteristics of hybrid ICPH 2671 Growth habit: Semi-spreading and indeterminate Days to flowering:114–120 days Days to 75% pod maturity: 166-184 days Petals: Yellow with dark red streaks Pods: Dark purple in colour Photo-sensitive Highly resistant to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic diseases. 35

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Cytoplasmic Nuclear Male Sterile Systems Five unique CMS systems have been developed for pigeon pea . A1 cytoplasm derived from C. sericeus. The CMS lines derived from this source are sensitive to temperature changes. The male sterile plants change to male fertile under low-temperature conditions ( Saxena 2005). Although the A1 source produces good yield, the presence of fertile plants in the progeny prevents it from becoming a desirable source for the development of CMS system. 36

Contd…….:

Contd……. The A2 cytoplasm derived from C. scarabaeoides is a stable source of CMS. The drawback of this system is that fertility restorers are inconsistent across environments. Hybrids derived from A2 showed high heterosis for yield (IIPR 2007). A3 cytoplasm derived from C. volubilis It does not have quality fertility restoration system. Hence, this source is not popular as a cytoplasm to develop CMS system. 37

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The A4 cytoplasm was derived using C. cajanifolius The system is stable across environments with very good fertility restoration system. Crosses between C. cajan and C. acutifolius gave rise to CMS on cultivated pigeon pea cytoplasm, which was named as A5. It is fully maintained by its male parent C. acutifolius , and most of the cultivated types restore fertility. The A5 cytoplasm is still under development. 38

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Recently, crosses between C. platycarpus and cultivated pigeon pea gave rise cleistogamous segregants. Some of the progeny were completely male sterile with white anthers. In the semi-fertile progeny, pollen shedding was not observed as the anthers had a thick cell wall. Self-pollination did not set seeds but seed set was observed when pollinated with a range of other cultivars. This may be another source of CMS in pigeon pea. Saxena et al. (2010) 39

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Easy And Cheap Production Of Quality Hybrid Seeds Seed production of male sterile lines The genetic male sterility in pigeonpea is governed by a pair of single recessive gene (ms ms ). Therefore, it is maintained in heterozygote. For seed production of male sterile line the sibbed seeds (Ms ms x ms ms ) are planted in isolation. This population is segregate into 1:1 sterile and fertile plants. All the plants are identified and only sterile plants are tagged and fertile plants are retained without tagging. The male sterile plants are pollinated naturally by pollen from the fertile plants (Ms ms ) by the insect pollinator. 40

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B) Seed production of pollinator line: The seed of pollen parent can be produced easily in isolation. Besides, the seed of the pollen parent from the hybrid seed production block may be harvested without any additional investment. 41

PLAN OF HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION:

PLAN OF HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION Parents Female :- CMS GT288A Male :- GTR 11 Seed rate Female :- 25 kg/ha Male :- 5 kg/ha Spacing Female :- 60 X 10 Male :- 60 X 20 42

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* I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * * I I I I I * I I I I I * 5:1 1 7 13 LAYOUT OF HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION **** Restorer Line ---- Female Line * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * * I I I I * I I I I * 4:1 1 6 11 43

Varieties………..:

Varieties……….. CoH 1 (1994) This hybrid was released in 1994 and ms T 21 was used as female parent, while ICPL 87109 was male parent. It was an indeterminate, short duration hybrid and was mainly used for cultivation in Tamil Nadu and Southern belts in India. It recorded 32% higher yield over control VBN-1. 44

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PPH 4 (1993) Hybrid with Ms Prabhat (DT) as female parent and AL 688 as male parent. It matures within 150 days and showed 32.1% yield superiority over the best national check variety UPAS 120 in the North Western Plains Zone. 45

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In 1997, TNAU released its second pigeonpea hybrid CoH 2 which out-yielded CoH 1 by 13% and Co 1 by 35%. pigeonpea hybrids AKPH 4104 and AKPH 2022 were released by PDKV, Akola in 1997 and 1998,respectively. AKPH 2022, recorded 64% superiority over control BDN 2. Hybrids / Varieties from UAS, Bangalore 1.TTB-7 3. ICPL-87 4.Hy-3C 5. BRG-1&2 46

Advantages of Hybrids:

Advantages of Hybrids Increased grain yield Enhanced seedling vigour Enhanced seedling vigour Greater drought tolerance Greater disease resistance 47

Prospects Of Hybrid Pigeon Pea In Indian Agriculture:

Prospects Of Hybrid Pigeon Pea In Indian Agriculture Stagnant production, soaring prices, and enhanced imports of pigeonpea (red gram) have been matter of concern to the prime stakeholders in India. The hybrid technology, based on cytoplasmic nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system, has given an opportunity of achieving the long-cherished goal of breaking yield barrier in pigeon pea. In the past two years ICRISAT and ICAR have tested over 1000 experimental hybrids and among these GTH 1 and ICPH 2671 were found the most outstanding. GTH-1 has yielded 32% more yield than best local variety, GT 101. ICPH 2671 is highly resistant to fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic diseases and produced 38% more yield over the popular variety Maruti in multi-location trials. The new hybrid pigeonpea will serve as the platform for the tremendous growth of pulse production in India. 48

References.............:

References............. Ariyanayagam, R.P., Rao , A.N., and Zaveri , P.P. 1995. Cyto-plasmic-genic male-sterility in interspecific matings of Cajanus . Crop Science 35(4):981-985. Rathnaswamy , R., Ravikesavan , R., Kalaimagal , T., Rangasamy , M., and Rangaswamy , S.R. 1994. Hybrid pigeonpea CoH 1 seed production manual. Saxena , K.B., Chauhan , Y.S., Laxman Singh, Kumar, R.V., and Johansen, C. 1996. Research and development of hybrid pigeonpea. Research Bulletin no. 19. Solomon, S., Angikar , G.P., Solanki , M.S., and Morbad , I.R. 1957. A study of heterosis in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp . Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 17:90-95. 49

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