Heterosis in groundnut


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INTRODUCTION Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid (2n = 4X = 40) Important oilseed crop grown in arid and semiarid tropics Native to Brazil (South America). It is a rich source of an edible oil (48-50%) and protein (25%).


CLASSIFICATION Kingdom - Plantae Division- Tracheophyta Class - Magnoliophyta Order - Fabales Family - Fabaceae Subfamily- Faboideae Genus – Arachis Species - hypogaea


POOR MAN’S ALMOND Contents Protein Oil Starch Soluble sugar Crude fiber Moisture Percent(%) 25.2 48.2 11.5 4.5 2.1 6 5

cultivated species:

cultivated species Diploid species (2n=2x=20) A villosulicarpa (Brazil) A repens (fodder & cover crop) Tetraploid species (2n=4x=40) A glabrata (fodder & cover crop) A hypogaea (oil seed) - amphidiploid


CLASSIFICATION Based on growth habit Spreading: branches are spreading, main shoot may erect or bent Semi-spreading: main shoot always erect Bunch: branches makes acute angle with the erect main shoot

Varietal classification:

Varietal classification Virginia - No floral axis on main stem, alternating pairs of floral and vegetative axis on branches, branches short, less hairy Peruvian runner - No floral axis on main stem, alternating pairs of floral and vegetative axis on branches, long, more hairy Valencia - Floral axis on main stem, sequential floral axis on branches, little branched, curve branches Spanish - Floral axis on main stem, sequential floral axis on branches, more branched, upright branches

Floral Biology :

Floral Biology Inflorescence: solitary or raceme containing flowers in the axils of cataphylls Flower : Zygomorphic, sessile, looks pedicillte late when peg starts developing(hyponthium) 9

Flower of peanut:

Flower of peanut 10

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Ovary: present at the base of hyponthium, superior, 2-4 ovules, occasionally 5, rarely 6 Style: two sharp bends Stigma: club shaped, protrude above anther & gets pollinated after dehiscence. 11


FLOWERING Anthesis - 5.30 to 7.30am Stigma becomes receptive about 24 h before anthesis and its receptivity persists for about 12 hours after anthesis Pollination is affected 7-8 hrs before blooming If anther dehiscence gets affected due to cloudy weather, the style continues growth & stigma become protrude & pollinated by alien pollen through insect Pollen grains are smooth, oval, and sticky, Fertilization occurs about 6h after pollination. 12


PEGGING Within 7 days after fertilization the intercalary meristem below the ovary starts become activate & female whorl located on the third internode also starts getting enlarged This in later stages takes the shape of thick root & carry the fertilized ovary in its tip – called peg Movement geotropic penetrate soil up to 7cm depth & become diageotropic The pod formation will start after growth of peg stops Time taken by peg to reach the soil surface is 2-8 days in bunch type & 5-10days in spreading type 13


CROSSING TECHNIQUE Emasculation will be done at evening hours (4 pm onwards) Select those buds which are bulged, which are about to open in immediate morning Bend the lower lip of calyx(separated one), carefully open wing petals & make a slight slit on keel petal to open the stamens Remove all fertile anthers(8) to see that stigma should not damage Close the emasculated bud with its petals to avoid contamination 14

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Pollination will done in the next morning between 7-10am. Collect anthers from male plant & squeezed by needle on slide, pollinate emasculated bud with needle Tie the small thread to calyx tube for identification Success is judged by the resultant peg emergence, developing peg should carry a withered flower & the piece of thread attached earlier 15

Breeding methods:

Breeding methods Introduction Mass selection Pedigree method Back crossing Single seed descent Pure line breeding Mutation breeding hybridization 16


HETEROSIS A considerable amount of Heterosis has been reported in groundnut. In general crosses involving Valencia x Spanish parents had high Heterosis for p o d yield and its component characters.

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Stokes and Hull (1930) : The manifestation of heterosis in different economic traits of groundnut was first observed in 11 crosses. Higgins (1940) : Observed marked heterosis for vegetative traits and pod yield in a diallel cross of 16 cultivars. And individual plant yields were highest for Spanish x Virginia crosses. Syakudo and Kawabata (1963) : studied a diallel cross involving 2 Virginia, 1 Spanish and2 Valencia cultivars. Marked heterosis was exhibited for the top weight in Virginia X Spanish or Verginia X Valencia combinations.

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Raju (1978) : recorded heterosis of 20 to 30% over superior parent for 3 important yield characters, viz. mature pods (20%), 2-seeded pod (20.8%) and pod yield per plant (37.02%). Raju (1982) : studied heterosis in 20 crosses but only 2 out of 20 crosses exhibited significant heterosis especially for pod yield.


COMBINING ABILITY Estimation of combining ability are essential in identifying superior parents and to study the heterotic effects in breeding programmes. The estimation GCA and SCA gives an indication about the performance of the parents. GCA is associated with genes which are additive in effects and SCA is attributed primarily to deviations from additive scheme caused by Dominance and Epistasis . (Rojas and Sprague, 1952). Parker et al (1970) estimated combining ability for 17 characters in F1 hybrid.

Heterosis over MP a nd B P:

Heterosis over MP a nd B P Character(s) Cross Heterosis Pod yield Spanish x Virginia Valencia x Spanish Subspecific group Virginia x Spanish Virginia x Virginia Spanish x Spanish Positive High High. F1 37.02% more over BP High heterosis Moderate heterosis 37.44 to 95.33% over MP; and 4.20 to 70.3% over BP High positive; Heterosis 5.2 to 30.5% Pod yield Virginia x Spanish Virginia x Valencia F1 equal to MP value Upto 11.2% over MP Leaflet length F1 superior to BP Days to 50% flowering Valencia x Virginia F1 superior to MP Shelling percentage Virginia x Spanish F1 higher than BP; Ranges from -23.3% to +10.3% over BP


IMPORTANT VARIETIES Spanish type : MS 1, GG 2, J 11, TG 11, ICGS 11,TMV 57981 Valencia type : MH 2, Kopergao-3, TMV 11 Virginia bunch : Kadiri-2&3, TMV-6,8&10 Virginia runner : M-13, GG-11,F-230,TMV-1,3&4 22


UAS B… Variety K-134  (14-15 q/ha with an oil content of 45.9%),  VRI-2  (14-15 q/ha with an oil content of 45.3%) and  GPBD-4  with an average pod yield of 14 q/ha under rainfed condition and resistant to tikka , leaf spot and leaf rust.

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High harvest index (about 50%) TAG 24, TG 26,GG 2  Fresh Seed dormancy TG 17 (30 days), TG 26 (12-15 days), VRI 1(7 days), BSR 1 (21 days), Dh 40 (30 days) Tolerant to acid soils TG 3, TG 22 Tolerant to salt affected soils TG 32, K 1224, RHRG 104 Confectionery types BAU 13, B 95, TKG 19A, GG 20,Somnath High water use and partitioning efficient TAG 24, TMV 2, ICG 2730, ICG 5263, NCAc 343, Somnath  Drought tolerant varieties ICGS 37, CSMG 84-1, CSMG 8784,TAG 24, K 134 Paddy fallow residual moisture situations in Orissa and Coastal Andhra Pradesh for Rabi/Summer season RSHY 1, VRI 3, Dh 40, BSR 1   For rice based cropping systems (RBCS) in NE states BSR 1, TG 26, R 8806, Dh 40 For spring situations in Punjab and U.P ICGS 1, SG 84

Mutation Breeding:

Mutation Breeding Variety Mutagen TG 1 X- rays BG1 Gamma rays BG2 Gamma rays Co2 EMS


Breeding of field crops; V.L.CHOPRA Crop breeding and genetics; HARI HAR RAM HAR GOVIND SINGH Groundnut ;monograph: P S Reddy www. icrisat . com www.nrcg.com www.uasd.com & www.uasb.com atul kumar singh 26 REFERENCES

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