transport and communication

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Transport and communication

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Means Of Communication are used to carry information,message,and ideas to people by postal services,telephone, e-mail etc. Transport and communication are the lifelines of the modern human society.

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Transport

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Meaning and importance The system of carrying goods and passengers from one place to another with the help of machines and orgnisations is called transport .They include buses,trucks,steamers,aeroplaneetc.

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Means of transport The four major means of transport are:- 1.Roadways 2.Railways 3.Waterways 4.Airways

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Roadways

TYPES OF ROAD:

TYPES OF ROAD ROADS TRANSCONTINENTAL HIGHWAYS NATIONAL HIGHWAYS LOCAL ROADS EXAMPLES Trans-Canadian, Alaskan , Pan-American Express and Australian transcontinental highway.

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The Grand Tunk road is India`s longest major road running across North India connecting Sonargaon in Bangalore and Peshawar in Pakistan for a distance of 2500 km.

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Railways

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Railways are cheapest and the fastest means of transport for carrying bulky goods over long distances. Indian railway is the second largest in Asia and the 4 th largest in the world. In large metropolitan cities of india intracity rail lines are constructed to ease the growing traffic congestion.

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These rail lines are either underground rail lines or elevated above the ground. The Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) is an elevated line of the sub-urban railway in chennai .

Types of railways:

Types of railways Railways Trans-Siberian Railway Trans-Canadian Railway Trans-Andean Railway Trans-Asian Railway Links Leningard on the Baltic coast of russia with Vladivostok on the pacific coastland East and West coasts of Canada. Bueons Aires (Argentina)with Valparasio (Chile) Singapore with Istanbul in Turkey running through 26 countries for a length of 18000km

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Waterways

Cheapest means of transport Inland waterways :

Cheapest means of transport Inland waterways Deep navigable rivers with a perennial flow of water and navigation canals constitute the inland waterways Lies in the industrially advanced countries of Western Europe, North America and Canada In India – limited to the river Brahmaputra in Assam, Ganges in UP and Bihar In Tamilnadu – Buckingham canal

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Ocean routes were once an important form of transport. Today international trade is mainly for transporting cargo. This is called ocean transport. Canals too play an important role in ocean transport.

Shipping routes:

Shipping routes Route Cape of goodhope Panama Canal Trans pacific Connects Western and Southern Europe with south west Asia and Australia West coast regions of north and south America with their east coastal regions Ports of eastern Asia to the ports on the West coast ports of North America

MAJOR PORTS OF INDIA:

MAJOR PORTS OF INDIA

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Airways

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This is the fastest way of transport developed in early twentieth century.It is also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels.Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms.It is the only made of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.

PIPELINES:

PIPELINES Transfer commodities like oil and natural gas Oil pipelines privately owned by oil companies Crude oil from the oil fields transported to the refineries or shipping terminals through pipelines Examples : Big inch line – Texas to New jersey Tap line – Qaisumah to Sidon

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Communication

COMMUNICATION:

COMMUNICATION It involves transmission of words and messages. Different forms of communication are : Telecommunication Mass communication The first development in communication was invention of the telegraph in 1844.Telephone was invented in 1875. The development of telegraph exchange in 1935 enabled messages written in one place to be transmitted to distant places where they are typed out by a teleprinter .

Mass Communication :

Mass Communication Medias The print media Electronic media Example Books, journals, magazines, newspapers. Radio, television, telecommunication, internet .

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. Satellites have played an important role in communication both in India and the world .The Indian National Satellite(INSAT) has revoulutionized communication in India. Communication has also increased the mobility of people easy and fast movement of goods and transfer of ideas.

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Presented by :- R.VARSHNI J.RUTH MICHELLE Thank you class 8c

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