types of dams

Category: Education

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Dams :

Dams Dam is a solid barrier constructed at a suitable location across a river valley to store flowing water . Storage of water is utilized for following objectives: Hydropower Irrigation Water for domestic consumption For drought and flood control Other additional utilization is to develop fisheries.

Structure of dam:

Structure of dam

Arch Dam:

Arch Dam This type of dams are concrete dams which are curved or convex upstream in plan This shape helps to transmits the major part of the worlds loads to the abutments Arch dams are built across narrow deep river gorges But now in recent years they have been considered even for little wider valleys.

Earth dam:

Earth dams are trapezoidal in shape Earth dams are constructed where the foundation rocks are weak to support Earth dams are relatively smaller in height and broad at the base They are mainly built with clay , sand and gravel. hence they are also known as Earth Fill dam or Rock Fill dam Earth dam

Buttress Dam:

Buttress Dam - Is a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports Buttress Dam –A support that transmits a force from a roof or wall to another supporting structure Buttress Dam This type of structure can be considered even if the foundation rocks are little weaker

Gravity Dam:

Gravity Dam These dams are heavy and massive wall-like structure of concrete in which the whole weight acts vertically downwards

Bhakra Dam:

Bhakra Dam Bhakra dam is the highest concrete gravity dam in asia and 2 nd highest in the world This dam is present across the river Sutlej in himachal Pradesh About construction it was started in the year 1948,completed in 1963 Details : About measurements 740 ft high from the deepest foundation as straight concrete dam being more than 3 times the height of Qutub Minar.

Leakages Below dams takes place generally due to the weak planes or zones occurring at the dam sites:

Leakages Below dams takes place generally due to the weak planes or zones occurring at the dam sites The reservoirs,which lies in the upstream side(when full),contain an enormous plenty of water due to great extent, on downward side of the dam,the water level wil be very low.due to this difference in levels,the reservoir water attempts to leak through the rocks of dam with considerable pressure and emerge in the downstream side


Dams are very costly projects,so their construction in seismic areas needs careful study to ensure their safety.when earth quakes occurs,a dam is subjected to two forces are due to the dam and due to reservoir water. conclusion

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