RAJESH

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STONES BY: RAJESH 11011BB009

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STONES: Classification of stones : Granite, Laterite , Quartzite, Marble and Slates, properties and there uses Stone units - khandki, Rubble, Black stones, Stone Metal, Flag stones . Quarrying of building stones: Quarry dressing, tool used, Preservation of stone work.

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Igneous rocks : These stones are formed when the magma from the earth cools inside the earth or on the earth surface. The magma that is released is cooled and solidified into a crystalline rock. Igneous form occurrence below ground presents itself in 2 basic ways: Intrusive basic dike and Plutonic Igneous rocks are classified according to mode of occurrence , texture, chemical composition and the geometry of the igneous body Characteristics:  A. Intrusive - subsurface crystallization B. Extrusive- above surface crystallization

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  Sedimentary rocks : Characteristics: Sandstone, limestone, dolomite originally formed mainly in sea water, or lakes from the remains of animals and plants also from transportation and deposition of rock products. A. Formed at or near the surface B. Distinctive strata C. Many fossils have been found in this type of rock Grain shape : rounded and angular

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Metamorphic rocks Metamorphic Rock is a type of rock formed when rocky material experiences intense heat and pressure in the crust of the earth. Metamorphic rock forms when pre-existing rock undergoes mineralogical and structural changes resulting from high temperatures and pressures. These changes occur in the rock while it remains solid (without melting). Characteristics: Marble, serpentine, onyx, slate, quartzite, gneiss are produced from sedimentary or igneous rocks by the action of heat and pressure. . No pressure - fossils survive . Low pressure - fossils distorted or destroyed . Moderate pressure - Grains form moderately . High pressure - Active fluids may circulate

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Classification: Igneous Rock Granite is strong and durable which makes it lasting building material for construction. Being more resistant to wear and tear as well as weathering Highly resistance to natural forces. Granite is most suitable and everlasting stone. Weight is 2600 to 2700kg/cubic meters. Compressive strength varies from 770 to 1300kg/cm2 Being harder, granite requires more processing compared to other stones. Ageless - always contemporary. Granite comes from igneous rocks, formed slowly, as it cooled deep underground. Provides a heavy crystalline and granular appearance with mineral grains. It is very hard material and easier to maintain than marble. Yet, it is still porous and will stain. There are different types of granite depending on the percentage mix of quartz, mica and feldspar. Black granite is known as an Anorthosite . GRANITE

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Classification: Metamorphic rock Qualities of a stone: Translucent. It can reflect 80-95 % visual of the objects. It is also hard compared to other building materials other than granite. It is soluble. Its residue is very negligible It has capacity to resist stress. Its compressive strength i2 720kq/cm2 Marbles show variety of textures on account of existing minerals & re-crystallization patterns. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 5 on the MOH Scale. Texture depends upon form, size, and uniformity of grain arrangements. Uses: Flooring, facing wall work, columns, steps, ornamentational works etc. Its can be sawn and curved easily and Can take nice polish. MARBLE …

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SLATE… Classification : Metamorphic rock Qualities of a stone: Slate is made of fine clay sediment It can be defined as a fine grain rock derived from clays possessing a cleavage that permits it to be split into thin sheets. A fine grained metamorphic stone that formed from clay, sedimentary rock shale, and sometimes quartz. Very thin and can break easily. Usually black, grey, or green. Color & patterns - Grayish Black, Multicolor, Brown, Red etc. Dazzling varieties-golden, copper, silver shine, green mica, speckle, deoli, mahu, silver grey. Non absorbent. Compressive strength is from 770 to 2110kq/cm Uses: Roofing work, sills, damp-proof course etc.

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QUARTZITE… Classification : Metamorphic rock Qualities of a Stone: Hard, brittle, crystalline and compact. Difficult to work and dress Quartzite can be easily distinguished from sandstone by the fact that it fractures across its constituent grains of sand, while sandstone fractures along the line of the cementing Most often it is white, light grey, yellowish, or light brown, but is sometimes coloured blue, green, purple, or black by included minerals. It results from the metamorphism of pure quartz sandstone. Much harder than sandstone. When broken, will break across the grains Sandstone will shatter into many individual grains of sand while quartzite will break across the grains. Uses: retaining walls, metal roads, concrete aggregate pitching, rubble masonry, facing of building etc.

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STONE UNITS - khandki, Rubble, Black stones, Stone Metal, Flag stones Thin slabs typically used for paving floors. Flagstone ( flag ) is a generic flat stone, usually used for paving slabs or walkways, patios, fences and roofing. It may be used for memorials, headstones, facades and other constructions.. Flagstone is a sedimentary rock that is split into layers along bedding planes. Flagstone is usually a form of a sandstone composed of feldspar and quartz and its grain size (0.16 mm – 2 mm in diameter). The material that binds flagstone is usually composed of silica, calcite, or iron oxide .

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QUARRYING OF BUILDING STONES,QUARRY DRESSING,TOOL USED,PRESERVATION OF STONE WORK. STONE QUARRYING: THE PROCESS OF TAKING OUT STONES FROM NATURAL ROCK BEDS IS KNOWN AS THE QUARYYING. THE TERM QURRY IS USED TO INDICATE THE EXPOSED SURFACE OF NATURAL ROCKS. THE STONES,THUS OBTAINED, ARE USED FOR VARIOUS ENG PUPOSES. THE DIFFERENCE BTWEEN A MINE AND A QURRY SHOULD BE NOTED . IN CASE OF A MINE THE OPERATIONS ARE CARRIOED OUT UNDER THE GROUND AT GREAT DEPTH.

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METHODS OF QUARRYING FOLLOWING ARE THE THREE METHODS OF QUARRYING QUARRYING WITH HAND TOOLS QUARRYING WITH CHANNELING MACHINE. QUARRYING BY BLASTING .

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QUARRYING WITH HAND TOOLS - FOLLOWING ARE THE THREE DIFFERENT WAYS OF DOING QUARRYING BY HAND TOOLS DIGGING OR EXCAVATING. HEATING. WEDGING .

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QUARRING WITH CHANNELING MACHINE - IN THIS METHOD THE CHANNELING MACHINE DRIVEN BY STEAM, COMPRESSED AIR OR ELECTRICITY ARE USED TO MAKE VERTICAL OR OBLIQUE GROOVES OR CHANELS ON THE ROCK MASS. QUARRYING BY BLASTING- IN THIS METHOD THE EXPLOSIVES ARE USED TO CONVERT ROCKS INTO SMALL PIECES OF ST ONES

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