Transdermal drug delivery system (sai kishan)


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Transdermal drug delivery system:

Transdermal drug delivery system By: Sai Kishan. I Dept: Industrial pharmacy

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Formulation of TDDS: Asymmetric TPX membrane method poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) : These are fabricated by using the dry/wet inversion process. TPX is dissolved in a mixture of solvent (cyclohexane) and nonsolvent additives at 60°c to form a polymer solution . The polymer solution is kept at 40°C for 24 hrs and cast on a glass plate to a pre-determined thickness with a gardener knife . After that the casting film is evaporated at 50°C for 30 sec, then the glass plate is to be immersed immediately in coagulation bath [maintained the temperature at 25°C].

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After 10 minutes of immersion, the membrane can be removed, air dry in a circulation oven at 50°C for 12 hrs]. Circular teflon mould method : Solutions containing polymers in various ratios are used in an organic solvent. Calculated amount of drug is dissolved in half the quantity of same organic solvent. Enhancers in different concentrations are dissolved in the other half of the organic solvent and then added. Di-N-butylphthalate is added as a plasticizer into drug polymer solution. The total contents are to be stirred for 12 hrs and then poured into a circular teflon mould.

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The moulds are to be placed on a leveled surface and covered with inverted funnel to control solvent vaporization in a laminar flow hood model with an air speed of 0.5 m/s . The solvent is allowed to evaporate for 24 hrs. The dried films are to be stored for another 24 hrs at 25±0.5°C in a desiccators containing silica gel before evaluation to eliminate aging effects. The type films are to be evaluated within one week of their preparation. Mercury substrate method : In this method drug is dissolved in polymer solution along with plasticizer . The above solution is to be stirred for 10-15 minutes to produce a homogenous dispersion and poured in to a leveled mercury surface, covered with inverted funnel to control solvent evaporation.

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By using “IPM membranes” method : In this method drug is dispersed in a mixture of water and propylene glycol containing carbomer 940 polymer and stirred for 12 hrs in magnetic stirrer. The dispersion is to be neutralized and made viscous by the addition of triethanolamine . Buffer pH 7.4 can be used in order to obtain solution gel, if the drug solubility in aqueous solution is very poor. The formed gel will be incorporated in the IPM membrane . By using “EVAC membranes” method : In order to prepare the target Transdermal therapeutic system , 1% carbopol reservoir gel, polyethylene (PE ), ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAC) membranes can be used as rate control membranes.

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If the drug is not soluble in water, propylene glycol is used for the preparation of gel. Drug is dissolved in propylene glycol , carbopol resin will be added to the above solution and neutralized by using 5% w/w sodium hydroxide solution . The drug (in gel form) is placed on a sheet of backing layer covering the specified area. A rate controlling membrane will be placed over the gel and the edges will be sealed by heat to obtain a leak proof device . Aluminium backed adhesive film method : Transdermal drug delivery system may produce unstable matrices if the loading dose is greater than 10 mg. Aluminium backed adhesive film method is a suitable one . For preparation of same, chloroform is choice of solvent, because most of the drugs as well as adhesive are soluble in chloroform.

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The drug is dissolved in chloroform and adhesive material will be added to the drug solution and dissolved. A custammade aluminium former is lined with aluminium foil and the ends blanked off with tightly fitting cork blocks. Preparation of TDDS by using Proliposomes: The Proliposomes are prepared by carrier method using film deposition technique. The Proliposomes are prepared by taking 5mg of mannitol powder in a 100 ml round bottom flask which is kept at 60-70°c temperature and the flask is rotated at 80-90 rpm and dried the mannitol at vacuum for 30 minutes. After drying, the temperature of the water bath is adjusted to 20-30°C.

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Drug and lecithin are dissolved in a suitable organic solvent mixture, a 0.5ml aliquot of the organic solution is introduced into the round bottomed flask at 37°C, after complete drying second aliquots (0.5ml) of the solution is to be added. After the last loading, the flask containing proliposomes are connected in a lyophilizer and subsequently drug loaded mannitol powders (proliposomes) are placed in a desiccators over night and then sieved through 100 mesh. The collected powder is transferred into a glass bottle and stored at the freeze temperature until characterization. By using free film method: Free film of cellulose acetate is prepared by casting on mercury surface. A polymer solution 2% w/w is to be prepared by using chloroform.

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Plasticizers are to be incorporated at a concentration of 40% w/w of polymer weight. Five ml of polymer solution was poured in a glass ring which is placed over the mercury surface in a glass petri dish. The rate of evaporation of the solvent is controlled by placing an inverted funnel over the petri dish. The film formation is noted by observing the mercury surface after complete evaporation of the solvent. The dry film will be separated out and stored between the sheets of wax paper in a desiccator until use. Free films of different thickness can be prepared by changing the volume of the polymer solution.

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EVALUATION PARAMETERS: Interaction studies: The drug and the excipients must be compatible with one another to produce a product that is stable, thus it is mandatory to detect any possible physical or chemical interaction as it can affect the bioavailability and stability of the drug. Interaction studies are commonly carried out in Thermal analysis, FT-IR, UV and chromatographic techniques by comparing their physicochemical characters such as assay, melting endotherms, characteristic wave numbers, absorption maxima etc., Thickness of the patch: The thickness of the drug loaded patch is measured in different points by using a digital micrometer and determines the average thickness and standard deviation for the same to ensure the thickness of the prepared patch.

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Weight uniformity: The prepared patches are to be dried at 60°c for 4hrs before testing. A specified area of patch is to be cut in different parts of the patch and weigh in digital balance. The average weight and standard deviation values are to be calculated from the individual weights. Folding endurance: A strip of specific are is to be cut evenly and repeatedly folded at the same place till it broke. The number of times the film could be folded at the same place without breaking gave the value of the folding endurance. Percentage Moisture content: The prepared films are to be weighed individually and to be kept in a desiccators containing fused calcium chloride at room temperature for 24 hrs.

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After 24 hrs the films are to be reweighed and determine the percentage moisture content from the below mentioned formula. Percentage moisture content = [Initial weight- Final weight/ Final weight] ×100. Percentage Moisture uptake: The weighed films are to be kept in a desiccator at room temperature for 24 hrs containing saturated solution of potassium chloride in order to maintain 84% RH. After 24hrs the films are to be reweighed and determine the percentage moisture uptake from the below mentioned formula. Percentage moisture uptake = [Final weight- Initial weight/ initial weight] ×100.

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Water vapour permeability (WVP) evaluation: Water vapour permeability can be determined with foam dressing method the air forced oven is replaced by a natural air circulation oven. The WVP can be determined by the following formula WVP=W/A Where, WVP is expressed in gm/m2 per 24hrs, W is the amount of vapour permeated through the patch expressed in gm/24hrs and A is the surface area of the exposure samples expressed in m2. Drug content: A specified area of patch is to be dissolved in a suitable solvent in specific volume.

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Then the solution is to be filtered through a filter medium and analyse the drug contain with the suitable method (UV or HPLC technique). Each value represents average of three different samples. Polariscope examination: This test is to be performed to examine the drug crystals from patch by polariscope. A specific surface area of the piece is to be kept on the object slide and observe for the drugs crystals to distinguish whether the drug is present as crystalline form or amorphous form in the patch. Shear Adhesion test: This test is to be performed for the measurement of the cohesive strength of an adhesive polymer.

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It can be influenced by the molecular weight, the degree of cross linking and the composition of polymer, type and the amount of tackifier added. An adhesive coated tape is applied onto a stainless steel plate; a specified weight is hung from the tape, to affect it pulling in a direction parallel to the plate. Shear adhesion strength is determined by measuring the time it takes to pull the tape off the plate. The longer the time take for removal, greater is the shear strength. Peel Adhesion test: In this test, the force required to remove an adhesive coating form a test substrate is referred to as peel adhesion. Molecular weight of adhesive polymer, the type and amount of additives are the variables that determined the peel adhesion properties.

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A single tape is applied to a stainless steel plate or a backing membrane of choice and then tape is pulled from the substrate at a 180º angle, and the force required for tape removed is measured. Flatness test: Three longitudinal strips are to be cut from each film at different portion like one from the centre, other one from the left side, and another one from the right side. The length of each strip was measured and the variation in length because of non-uniformity in flatness was measured by determining percent constriction, with 0% constriction equivalent to 100% flatness. Percentage Elongation break test: The percentage elongation break is to be determined by noting the length just before the break point, the percentage elongation can be determined from the below mentioned formula.

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Elongation percentage = L1-L2 ×100 L2 Where, L1is the final length of each strip and L2 is the initial length of each strip. Rolling ball tack test: This test measures the softness of a polymer that relates to patch. In this test, stainless steel ball of 7/16 inches in diameter is released on an inclined track so that it rolls down and comes into contact with horizontal, upward facing adhesive. The distance the ball travels along the adhesive provides the measurement of tack, which is expressed in inch. Quick Stick (peel-tack) test: In this test, the patch is pulled away from the substrate at 90ºC at a speed of 12 inches/min.

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The peel force required to break the bond between adhesive and substrate is measured and recorded as tack value, which is expressed in ounces or grams per inch width. In vitro drug release studies: The paddle over disc method (USP apparatus V) can be employed for assessment of the release of the drug from the prepared patches. Dry films of known thickness is to be cut into definite shape, weighed, and fixed over a glass plate with an adhesive. The glass plate was then placed in a 500-mL of the dissolution medium or phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the apparatus was equilibrated to 32± 0.5°C. The paddle was then set at a distance of 2.5 cm from the glass plate and operated at a speed of 50 rpm. Samples (5-mL aliquots) can be withdrawn at appropriate time intervals up to 24 h and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer or HPLC.

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The experiment is to be performed in triplicate and the mean value can be calculated. In vitro skin permeation studies: An in vitro permeation study can be carried out by using diffusion cell. Full thickness abdominal skin of male Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250g. Hair from the abdominal region is to be removed carefully by using a electric clipper; the dermal side of the skin was thoroughly cleaned with distilled water to remove any adhering tissues or blood vessels, equilibrated for an hour in dissolution medium or phosphate buffer pH 7.4 before starting the experiment and was placed on a magnetic stirrer with a small magnetic needle for uniform distribution of the diffusant. The temperature of the cell was maintained at 32 ± 0.5°C using a thermostatically controlled heater. The isolated rat skin piece is to be mounted between the compartments of the diffusion cell, with the epidermis facing upward into the donor compartment.

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Diagrammatic representation of the stratum corneum and the intercellular and transcellular routes of penetration

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Sample volume of definite volume is to be removed from the receptor compartment at regular intervals, and an equal volume of fresh medium is to be replaced. Samples are to be filtered through filtering medium and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically or HPLC. Flux can be determined directly as the slope of the curve between the steady-state values of the amount of drug permeated (mg cm-2) vs. time in hours and permeability coefficients were deduced by dividing the flux by the initial drug load (mg cm-2). Skin Irritation study: Skin irritation and sensitization testing can be performed on healthy rabbits (average weight 1.2 to 1.5 kg). The dorsal surface (50cm2) of the rabbit is to be cleaned and remove the hair from the clean dorsal surface by shaving and clean the surface by using rectified spirit and the representative formulations can be applied over the skin.

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The patch is to be removed after 24 hr and the skin is to be observed and classified into 5 grades on the basis of the severity of skin injury. Stability studies: Stability studies are to be conducted according to the ICH guidelines by storing the TDDS samples at 40±0.5°c and 75±5% RH for 6 months. The samples were withdrawn at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days and analyze suitably for the drug content.

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TYPES OF TRANSDERMAL PATCHES: Single layer drug in adhesive: In this type the adhesive layer contains the drug. The adhesive layer not only serves to adhere the various layers together and also responsible for the releasing the drug to the skin. The adhesive layer is surrounded by a temporary liner and a backing. Multi -layer drug in adhesive: This type is also similar to the single layer but it contains a immediate drug release layer and other layer will be a controlled release along with the adhesive layer. The adhesive layer is responsible for the releasing of the drug. This patch also has a temporary liner-layer and a permanent backing.

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Vapour patch : In this type of patch the role of adhesive layer not only serves to adhere the various layers together but also serves as release vapour. The vapour patches are new to the market, commonly used for releasing of essential oils in decongestion. Various other types of vapour patches are also available in the market which are used to improve the quality of sleep and reduces the cigarette smoking conditions. PATCH TECHNOLOGY FOR PROTEIN DELIVERY

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Reservoir system: In this system the drug reservoir is embedded between an impervious backing layer and a rate controlling membrane. The drug releases only through the rate controlling membrane, which can be micro porous or non porous. Array Dimensions: 5.0 cm2 2.5 cm2 1.0 cm2 ViaDerm devices

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Applying the ViaDerm system to the skin

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In the drug reservoir compartment, the drug can be in the form of a solution, suspension, gel or dispersed in a solid polymer matrix. Hypoallergenic adhesive polymer can be applied as outer surface polymeric membrane which is compatible with drug. Matrix system: Drug-in-adhesive system: In this type the drug reservoir is formed by dispersing the drug in an adhesive polymer and then spreading the medicated adhesive polymer by solvent casting or melting (in the case of hot-melt adhesives) on an impervious backing layer. On top of the reservoir, unmediated adhesive polymer layers are applied for protection purpose.

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ii. Matrix-dispersion system: In this type the drug is dispersed homogenously in a hydrophilic or lipophilic polymer matrix. This drug containing polymer disk is fixed on to an occlusive base plate in a compartment fabricated from a drug impermeable backing layer. Instead of applying the adhesive on the face of the drug reservoir, it is spread along with the circumference to form a strip of adhesive rim. Micro reservoir system: In this type the drug delivery system is a combination of reservoir and matrix-dispersion system. The drug reservoir is formed by first suspending the drug in an aqueous solution of water soluble polymer and then dispersing the solution homogeneously in a lipophilic polymer to form thousands of unreachable, microscopic spheres of drug reservoirs.

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This thermodynamically unstable dispersion is stabilized quickly by immediately cross-linking the polymer in situ by using cross linking agents. RF-Micro Channel formation

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Passion is the key ingredient to study and practice of life !!!! Thank you

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