heat exchanger


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HEAT EXCHANGER GUIDED BY: PREPARED BY: Prof. S.C. Sharma Aayush Toshniwal Harsh Chudgar Nikhil Lele


FOULING FACTOR The performance of heat exchanger usually deteriorates with time as a result of accumulation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The layer of deposits represents additional resistance to heat transfer and causes the rate of heat transfer in a heat transfer to decrease. The net effect of these accumulation of heat transfer is represented by fouling factor which is a measure of thermal resistance induced by fouling.

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Fouling should be considered in the design and selection of heat exchanger. In such application it may be necessary to select a larger and expensive heat exchanger. The periodic cleaning of heat exchanger and the resulting down time are additional penalties associated with fouling. The fouling factor depends on operating temperature and the velocities of fluids and length of service. Fouling increases with increasing temperature and decreasing velocities.


PRECIPITAION OF SOLID DEPOSITES These is specially found in the areas where the water is hard. The scales of such deposits come off by scratching and the surfaces can be cleaned of such deposits by chemical treatment. To avoid these problem, water in power and process plants is extensively heated and its solid contents are removed before it is allowed to circulates through the system. The solid ash particles in the flue gases accumulating on the surfaces of air pre-heaters create similar problems.


CHEMICAL FOULING In this case surfaces are fouled by the accumulation of the products of chemical reactions on the surfaces. This form of fouling can be avoided by coating metal pipes with glass or using plastic pipe instead of metal ones.


BIOLOGICAL FOULING Heat exchangers may also be fouled by the growth of algae in warn water. This type of fouling can be prevented by chemical treatment.

Analysis of heat exchanger : 

Analysis of heat exchanger For analyzing of heat exchanger we will discuss the two methods. Log Mean Temperature Difference Method (LMTD) effectiveness- NTU method Heat exchangers usually operate for long periods of time with no change in there operating condition. Therefore, they can be modeled as study flow device.

Assumptions : 

Assumptions The mass flow rate of each fluid remain constant. The fluid properties such as temp. and velocity at inlet and outlet remain same. The fluid stream experienced little or no change in their velocities and elevations, and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. The specific heat of the fluid, in general, changes with temp. But, in a specified temperature range it can be treated as a constant at some average value with little loss in accuracy. Axial heat conduction along the tube is usually insignificant and can be considered negligible. Finally, the outer surface of the heat exchanger is assumed to be perfectly insulated.

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Under these assumptions, the first law of thermodynamucs requires that the rate of heat transfer from the hot fluid be equal to the rate of heat transfer to the cold one.That is,

Principle of heat exchanger : 

Principle of heat exchanger

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Counter flow Parallel flow

LMTD methods.The curse of the non-linear behavior : 

LMTD methods.The curse of the non-linear behavior Due to the nonlinear behavior of the temperature difference cross the heat exchanger. An appropriate average temperature difference has to be adopted

The lmtd definition : 

The lmtd definition

The correction factor F for multi-pass and cross-flow : 

The correction factor F for multi-pass and cross-flow The standard lmtd formulation is limited to the simple cases of parallel and counter flow configurations. In more complex cases as cross flow and multi-pass the correction factor F has to be considered.

F factors for various flow configurations : 

F factors for various flow configurations

F factors for various flow configurations : 

F factors for various flow configurations

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SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Heat exchangers are complicated devices and the result obtained with the simplified approach presented should be used with care. It is natural to tend to overdesign the heat exchanger in order to avoid unpleasant surprises. Engineers in industry often find themselves in a position to select heat exchangers to accompany certain heat transfer tasks.

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Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchanger is usually accompanied by increased pressure drop and thus higher pumping power. Therefore any gain from enhancement should be weighed at the cost of the accompanying pressure drop. Some thought should be given to which fluid should pass through the tube side and which through the shell side. Usually the more viscous fluid is suitable for shell side (larger passage area and thus lower pressure drop) and fluid with higher pressure for the tube side.

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HEAT TRANSFER The heat exchanger should be capable of transferring heat at the specified rate in order to achieve the desired temperature change of the fluid at the specified mass flow rate SIZE AND WEIGHT Normally the smaller and lighter heat exchanger is the better one. This is especially in the case of automotive and aerospace industries. Larger heat exchangers carry higher price tag. The space available for the heat exchanger in some cases limits the length of the tube that can be used.

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COST Budgetary limitations plays an important role in the selection oh heat exchangers, except where money in not so important. An Off-the-shelf heat exchanger has a definite cost advantage over those made to order as in the cases where heat exchangers are integral part of the overall device to be manufactured. The operating and maintenance costs of the heat exchanger are also important considerations in assessing the overall cost OPERATING COST = (PUMPING COST, kW) X (HOURS OF OPERATIONS, hrs) X (PRICE OF ELECTRICITY, Rs/kWh)


PUMPING POWER In heat exchangers, both fluids are usually forced to flow by pumps or fans that consume electrical power. Pumping power is the total electrical power consumed by the motors of the pumps and fans. MATERIALS A temperature difference of 50oC or more between the tubes and the shell will probably pose differential thermal expansion problems and need to be considered. In case of corrosive fluids, we may have to select expensive corrosion resistance materials such as stainless steel.

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