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William Shakespeare:

William Shakespeare

Contents:

Contents Who he was? Life Early life London and theatrical career Later years and death Plays Performances Textual sources Poems Sonnets Style Influence Critical reputation Speculation about Shakespeare Authorship Religion Sexuality Portraiture List of works Classification of the plays Works Comedies Histories Tragedies Poems Lost plays Apocrypha

Who he was?:

William Shakespeare   (26 April 1564 ( baptised ) – 23 April 1616)   was an English   poet   and   playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist .He is often called England's   national poet   and the "Bard of Avon".   His extant works, including some   collaborations, consist of about 38   plays,154   sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, the authorship of some of which is uncertain. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Who he was?

Slide 4:

Life

Early life :

Early life William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from  Snitterfield , and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George's Day. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers, since Shakespeare died 23 April 1616. He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was probably educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar, the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, and the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.

Slide 6:

At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, and six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son  Hamnet  and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised 2 February 1585.  Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the 'complaints bill' of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years". Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare’s first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster. Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte " in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area.

Slide 7:

London and theatrical career It is not known exactly when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592.   By then, he was sufficiently well known in London to be attacked in print by the playwright Robert Greene   in his   Groats -Worth of Wit : ...there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his   Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide , supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute   Johannes factotum , is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country. Scholars differ on the exact meaning of these words, but most agree that Greene is accusing Shakespeare of reaching above his rank in trying to match university-educated writers such as   Christopher Marlowe,   Thomas Nashe   and Greene himself (the   "university wits“).   The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare's   Henry VI, Part 3 , along with the pun "Shake-scene", identifies Shakespeare as Greene's target. Here   Johannes Factotum — "Jack of all trades" — means a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius".

Slide 8:

Greene's attack is the earliest surviving mention of Shakespeare ’ s career in the theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mid-1580s to just before Greene's remarks.   From 1594, Shakespeare's plays were performed by only the   Lord Chamberlain's Men, a company owned by a group of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leading   playing company   in London.After the death of   Queen Elizabeth   in 1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new king,James I, and changed its name to the   King's Men. In 1599, a partnership of company members built their own theatre on the south bank of the   River Thames, which they called the   Globe. In 1608, the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. Records of Shakespeare's property purchases and investments indicate that the company made him a wealthy man.In 1597, he bought the second-largest house in Stratford,   New Place, and in 1605, he invested in a share of the parish   tithes   in Stratford.

Slide 9:

Some of Shakespeare's plays were published in quarto editions from 1594. By 1598, his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages. Shakespeare continued to act in his own and other plays after his success as a playwright. The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson’s Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Sejanus His Fall (1603).The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list for Jonson’s  Volpone  is taken by some scholars as a sign that his acting career was nearing its end. The First Folio of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare as one of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which were first staged after  Volpone , although we cannot know for certain which roles he played. In 1610, John Davies of Hereford wrote that "good Will" played "kingly" roles. In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father. Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in As You Like It and the Chorus in Henry V, though scholars doubt the sources of the information. Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford during his career. In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St. Helen's,  Bishopsgate , north of the River Thames. He moved across the river to  Southwark  by 1599, the year his company constructed the Globe Theatre there. By 1604, he had moved north of the river again, to an area north of St Paul's Cathedral with many fine houses. There he rented rooms from a French Huguenot named Christopher Mountjoy , a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear.

Slide 10:

Later years and death Rowe was the first biographer to pass down the tradition that Shakespeare retired to Stratford some years before his death.It is perhaps relevant that the London public playhouses were repeatedly closed for months at a time during the extended outbreaks of the Plague (a total of over 60 months closure between May 1603 and February 1610),which meant there was often no acting work. Retiarement from all work was uncommon at that time,and Shakespeare continued to visit London.   In 1612, Shakespeare was called as a witness in   Bellott v. Mountjoy , a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.In March 1613 he bought a   gatehouse   in the former Blackfriars   priory;   and from November 1614 he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law,   John Hall.After 1606 – 1607, Shakespeare wrote fewer plays, and none are attributed to him after 1613.   His last three plays were collaborations, probably with   John Fletcher,   who succeeded him as the house playwright for the King ’ s Men. Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616   and was survived by his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,and Judith had married   Thomas Quiney , a   vintner, two months before Shakespeare ’ s death.

Slide 11:

In his will, Shakespeare left the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna.   The terms instructed that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body".   The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying. The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare ’ s direct line.Shakespeare's will scarcely mentions his wife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one third of his estate automatically.   He did make a point, however, of leaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to much speculation.   Some scholars see the bequest as an insult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed would have been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance. Shakespeare was buried in the   chancel   of the   Holy Trinity Church   two days after his death.   The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a   curse   against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008: Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare , To digg the dvst encloased heare . Bleste be ye man yt spares thes stones, And cvrst be he yt moves my bones. (Modern spelling:   Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, | To dig the dust enclosed here. | Blessed be the man that spares these stones, | And cursed be he that moves my bones. ) Sometime before 1623, a   funerary monument   was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing. Its plaque compares him to   Nestor,   Socrates, and   Virgil. In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the   First Folio, the   Droeshout engraving   was published. Shakespeare has been commemorated in many   statues and memorials   around the world, including funeral monuments in   Southwark Cathedral   and   Poets' Corner   in   Westminster Abbey.

Slide 12:

Plays

Slide 13:

Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career.   Some attributions, such as   Titus Andronicus   and the early history plays, remain controversial, while   The Two Noble Kinsmen   and the lost   Cardenio   have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition. The first recorded works of Shakespeare are   Richard III   and the three parts of   Henry VI , written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date, however,   and studies of the texts suggest that   Titus Andronicus ,   The Comedy of Errors ,   The Taming of the Shrew   and   The Two Gentlemen of Verona   may also belong to Shakespeare ’ s earliest period. His first   histories, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition of   Raphael Holinshed's   Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland , dramatise the destructive results of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as a justification for the origins of the   Tudor dynasty.   The early plays were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especially   Thomas Kyd   and   Christopher Marlowe, by the traditions of medieval drama, and by the plays of   Seneca.   The Comedy of Errors was also based on classical models, but no source for   The Taming of the Shrew   has been found, though it is related to a separate play of the same name and may have derived from a folk story. Like   The Two Gentlemen of Verona , in which two friends appear to approve of rape,   the   Shrew's   story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics and directors.

Slide 14:

Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double Plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s to the romantic atmosphere of his greatest comedies. A Midsummer Night's Dream is a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes. Shakespeare's next comedy, the equally romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences. The wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing, the charming rural setting of As You Like It, and the lively merrymaking of Twelfth Night complete Shakespeare's sequence of great comedies. After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V. His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work. This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death; and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of  Plutarch's  Parallel Lives—which introduced a new kind of drama. According to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar "the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare's own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other".

Slide 15:

In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problem plays"   Measure for Measure ,   Troilus and Cressida , and   All's Well That Ends Well   and a number of his best known   tragedies.   Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's most famous tragedies,   Hamlet , has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous   soliloquy   which begins "To be or not to be; that is the question".   Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement .   The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves.   In   Othello , the villain   Iago   stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him. In   King Lear , the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lear's youngest daughter Cordelia . According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".   In   Macbeth , the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies,   uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife,   Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne, until their own guilt destroys them in turn.   In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. His last major tragedies,   Antony and Cleopatra   and   Coriolanus , contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic   T. S. Eliot.

Slide 16:

In his final period, Shakespeare turned to   romance   or   tragicomedy   and completed three more major plays:   Cymbeline ,   The Winter's Tale and   The Tempest , as well as the collaboration,   Pericles, Prince of Tyre . Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors. Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeare's part, but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day .   Shakespeare collaborated on two further surviving plays,   Henry VIII   and   The Two Noble Kinsmen , probably with   John Fletcher.

Slide 17:

Performances It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays. The title page of the 1594 edition of   Titus Andronicus   reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.   After the   plagues   of 1592 – 3, Shakespeare's plays were performed by his own company at   The Theatre   and the   Curtain   in   Shoreditch , north of the Thames. Londoners flocked there to see the first part of   Henry IV,   Leonard Digges   recording, "Let but Falstaff come, Hal, Poins , the rest...and you scarce shall have a room".   When the company found themselves in dispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used the timbers to construct the   Globe Theatre, the first playhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames at   Southwark .   The Globe opened in autumn 1599, with   Julius Caesar   one of the first plays staged. Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including   Hamlet,   Othello   and   King Lear.

Slide 18:

After the Lord Chamberlain's Men were renamed the   King's Men   in 1603, they entered a special relationship with the new   King James. Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November 1604 and 31 October 1605, including two performances of   The Merchant of Venice.   After 1608, they performed at the indoor Blackfriars Theatre   during the winter and the Globe during the summer.   The indoor setting, combined with the   Jacobean   fashion for lavishly staged   masques, allowed Shakespeare to introduce more elaborate stage devices. In   Cymbeline, for example,   Jupiter   descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on their knees."The actors in Shakespeare's company included the famous   Richard Burbage,   William Kempe ,   Henry Condell   and   John Heminges . Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including   Richard III,   Hamlet,   Othello, and King Lear.   The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in   Romeo and Juliet   and   Dogberry   in   Much Ado About Nothing, among other characters.   He was replaced around the turn of the 16th century by   Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone   in   As You Like It   and the fool in   King Lear.   In 1613, Sir   Henry Wotton   recorded that   Henry VIII   "was set forth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony".   On 29 June, however, a cannon set fire to the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, an event which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare play with rare precision.

Textual sources:

In 1623,   John Heminges   and   Henry Condell, two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the   First Folio, a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time.   Many of the plays had already appeared in   quarto   versions — flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves. No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as " stol'n and surreptitious copies".   Alfred Pollard   termed some of them "bad quartos" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.   Where several versions of a play survive, each   differs from the other. The differences may stem from copying or   printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own   papers.   In some cases, for example   Hamlet ,   Troilus and Cressida   and   Othello , Shakespeare could have revised the texts between the quarto and folio editions. In the case of   King Lear, however, while most modern additions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version is so different from the 1608 quarto, that the   Oxford Shakespeare   prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion. Textual sources

Poems:

Poems

Slide 21:

In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of   plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on erotic themes, Venus and Adonis   and   The Rape of Lucrece . He dedicated them to   Henry Wriothesley , Earl of Southampton. In   Venus and Adonis , an innocent   Adonis   rejects the sexual advances of   Venus ; while in   The Rape of Lucrece , the virtuous wife   Lucrece   is raped by the lustful Tarquin .   Influenced by   Ovid's   Metamorphoses ,   the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust.   Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime . A third narrative poem,   A Lover's Complaint , in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the   Sonnets   in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote   A Lover's Complaint . Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects. The Phoenix and the Turtle , printed in Robert Chester's 1601   Love's Martyr , mourns the deaths of the legendary   phoenix   and his lover, the faithful   turtle dove. In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in   The Passionate Pilgrim , published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission.

Sonnets:

Published in 1609, the   Sonnets   were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed. Scholars are not certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership.   Even before the two unauthorised sonnets appeared in   The Passionate Pilgrim   in 1599,   Francis Meres   had referred in 1598 to Shakespeare's " sugred Sonnets among his private friends".   Few analysts believe that the published collection follows Shakespeare's intended sequence. He seems to have planned two contrasting series: one about uncontrollable lust for a married woman of dark complexion (the "dark lady"), and one about conflicted love for a fair young man (the "fair youth"). It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though   Wordsworth   believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlocked his heart". The 1609 edition was dedicated to a "Mr. W.H.", credited as "the only begetter" of the poems. It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by the publisher,   Thomas Thorpe, whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr. W.H. was, despite numerous theories, or whether Shakespeare even authorised the publication. Critics praise the   Sonnets   as a profound meditation on the nature of love, sexual passion, procreation, death, and time. Sonnets

Style:

Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama.   The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical — written for actors to declaim rather than speak. The grand speeches in   Titus Andronicus, in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in   The Two Gentlemen of Verona   has been described as stilted. Soon, however, Shakespeare began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes. The opening   soliloquy   of   Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of   Vice in medieval drama. At the same time, Richard ’ s vivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespeare's mature plays.   No single play marks a change from the traditional to the freer style. Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with   Romeo and Juliet   perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles. [   By the time of   Romeo and Juliet,   Richard II, and   A Midsummer Night's Dream   in the mid-1590s, Shakespeare had begun to write a more natural poetry. He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself. Style

Slide 24:

Shakespeare's standard poetic form was   blank verse, composed in   iambic pentameter. In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable. The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, and finish at the   end of lines, with the risk of monotony.   Once Shakespeare mastered traditional blank verse, he began to interrupt and vary its flow. This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as   Julius Caesar   and   Hamlet. Shakespeare uses it, for example, to convey the turmoil in Hamlet's mind: Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting That would not let me sleep. Methought I lay Worse than the mutines in the bilboes . Rashly — And prais'd be rashness for it — let us know Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well...

Slide 25:

After   Hamlet , Shakespeare varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies. The literary critic   A. C. Bradley   described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".   In the last phase of his career, Shakespeare adopted many techniques to achieve these effects. These included   run-on lines, irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length. In   Macbeth , for example, the language darts from one unrelated metaphor or simile to another: "was the hope drunk/ Wherein you dressed yourself?“ "...pity, like a naked new-born babe/ Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd / Upon the sightless couriers of the air..." . The listener is challenged to complete the sense.   The late romances, with their shifts in time and surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short sentences are set against one another, clauses are piled up, subject and object are reversed, and words are omitted, creating an effect of spontaneity. Shakespeare combined poetic genius with a practical sense of the theatre.   Like all playwrights of the time, he dramatised stories from sources such as   Plutarch   and Holinshed.   He reshaped each plot to create several centres of interest and to show as many sides of a narrative to the audience as possible. This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.   As Shakespeare ’ s mastery grew, he gave his characters clearer and more varied motivations and distinctive patterns of speech. He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however. In   Shakespeare's late romances, he deliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised the illusion of theatre.

Influence:

Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation , plot,   language, and   genre.   Until   Romeo and Juliet , for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.   Soliloquies   had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events; but Shakespeare used them to explore characters' minds.   His work heavily influenced later poetry. The   Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic   George Steiner   described all English verse dramas from   Coleridge   to   Tennyson   as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes." Influence

Slide 27:

Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, and Charles Dickens. The American novelist Herman Melville's soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare; his Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a classic tragic hero, inspired by King Lear. Scholars have identified 20,000 pieces of music linked to Shakespeare's works. These include two operas by Giuseppe Verdi,  Otello  and Falstaff, whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays. Shakespeare has also inspired many painters, including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites. The Swiss Romantic artist Henry Fuseli, a friend of William Blake, even translated Macbeth into German. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular that of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature. In Shakespeare's day, English grammar, spelling and pronunciation were less standardised than they are now, and his use of language helped shape modern English. Samuel Johnson quoted him more often than any other author in his A Dictionary of the English Language, the first serious work of its type. Expressions such as "with bated breath" (Merchant of Venice) and "a foregone conclusion" (Othello) have found their way into everyday English speech.

Critical reputation:

Shakespeare was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise.   In 1598, the cleric and author   Francis Meres singled him out from a group of English writers as "the most excellent" in both comedy and tragedy.   And the authors of the   Parnassus plays at   St John's College, Cambridge, numbered him with   Chaucer,   Gower   and   Spenser.In the   First Folio,   Ben Jonson   called Shakespeare the "Soul of the age, the applause, delight, the wonder of our stage", though he had remarked elsewhere that "Shakespeare wanted art". Between   the Restoration   of the monarchy in 1660 and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue. As a result, critics of the time mostly rated Shakespeare below   John Fletcher   and   Ben Jonson. Thomas Rymer , for example, condemned Shakespeare for mixing the comic with the tragic. Critical reputation

Slide 29:

Nevertheless, poet and critic   John Dryden   rated Shakespeare highly, saying of Jonson, "I admire him, but I love Shakespeare".   For several decades, Rymer's view held sway; but during the 18th century, critics began to respond to Shakespeare on his own terms and acclaim what they termed his natural genius. A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of   Samuel Johnson in 1765 and   Edmond Malone   in 1790, added to his growing reputation.   By 1800, he was firmly enshrined as the national poet. In the 18th and 19th centuries, his reputation also spread abroad. Among those who championed him were the writers   Voltaire,   Goethe,   Stendhal and   Victor Hugo. During the   Romantic era, Shakespeare was praised by the poet and literary philosopher   Samuel Taylor Coleridge; and the critic   August Wilhelm Schlegel   translated his plays in the spirit of   German Romanticism. In the 19th century, critical admiration for Shakespeare's genius often bordered on adulation."That King Shakespeare," the essayist   Thomas Carlyle   wrote in 1840, "does not he shine, in crowned sovereignty, over us all, as the noblest, gentlest, yet strongest of rallying signs; indestructible".   The   Victorians   produced his plays as lavish spectacles on a grand scale. The playwright and critic   George Bernard Shaw   mocked the cult of Shakespeare worship as " bardolatry ”. He claimed that the new   naturalism   of   Ibsen's   plays had made Shakespeare obsolete.

Slide 30:

The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the   avant-garde. The   Expressionists in Germany   and the   Futurists   in Moscow mounted productions of his plays. Marxist playwright and director   Bertolt Brecht   devised an   epic theatre   under the influence of Shakespeare. The poet and critic   T. S. Eliot   argued against Shaw that Shakespeare's "primitiveness" in fact made him truly modern.   Eliot, along with   G. Wilson Knight   and the school of   New Criticism, led a movement towards a closer reading of Shakespeare's imagery. In the 1950s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for "post-modern" studies of Shakespeare.   By the 1980s, Shakespeare studies were open to movements such as structuralism, feminism,   New Historicism,   African American studies, and   queer studies.

Slide 31:

Speculation About Shakespeare

Authorship :

Authorship Around 230 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him.   Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon,   Christopher Marlowe, and   Edward de Vere , 17th Earl of Oxford.   Several "group theories" have also been proposed.   Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution,   but interest in the subject, particularly the   Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, continues into the 21st century.

Religion:

Religion Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when Catholic practice was against the law.   Shakespeare's mother,   Mary Arden, certainly came from a pious Catholic family. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by   John Shakespeare, found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. The document is now lost, however, and scholars differ as to its authenticity.   In 1591 the authorities reported that John Shakespeare had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse.   In 1606 the name of William's daughter Susanna appears on a list of those who failed to attend Easter communion   in Stratford. Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove either way.

Sexuality:

Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. At 18, he married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant. Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May 1583. Over the centuries some readers have posited that Shakespeare's sonnets are autobiographical, and point to them as evidence of his love for a young man. Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than sexual love. The 26 so-called "Dark Lady“ sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence of heterosexual liaisons. Sexuality

Portraiture:

Portraiture No written contemporary description of Shakespeare's physical appearance survives, and no evidence suggests that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the   Droeshout engraving, which   Ben Jonson   approved of as a good likeness,   and his   Stratford monument   provide the best evidence of his appearance. From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare. That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as mis -attributions, repaintings and relabelling of portraits of other people.

Slide 36:

List Of Works

Classification of plays:

Classification of plays Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the   First Folio   of 1623, listed below according to their folio classification as comedies,   histories   and   tragedies.   Two plays not included in the First Folio,   The Two Noble Kinsmen   and   Pericles, Prince of Tyre , are now accepted as part of the canon, with scholars agreed that Shakespeare made a major contribution to their composition.   No Shakespearean poems were included in the First Folio.

Slide 38:

In the late 19th century,   Edward Dowden   classified four of the late comedies as   romances, and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies , his term is often used.   These plays and the associated   Two Noble Kinsmen   are marked with an asterisk (*) below. In 1896,   Frederick S. Boas   coined the term "problem plays" to describe four plays:   All's Well That Ends Well ,   Measure for Measure ,   Troilus and Cressida   and   Hamlet .   "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot be strictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote. "We may therefore borrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class them together as Shakespeare's problem plays."   The term, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use, though   Hamlet   is definitively classed as a tragedy.   The other problem plays are marked below with a double dagger ( ‡ ). Plays thought to be only partly written by Shakespeare are marked with a dagger ( † ) below. Other works occasionally attributed to him are listed as apocrypha.

Slide 39:

Works

Comedies:

Comedies All's Well That Ends Well  ‡ As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure  ‡ The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre  *† The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest  * Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen  *† The Winter's Tale  *

Histories:

Histories King John Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V Henry VI, Part 1  † Henry VI, Part 2 Henry VI, Part 3 Richard III Henry VIII  †

Tragedies:

Tragedies Romeo and Juliet Coriolanus Titus Andronicus  † Timon of Athens  † Julius Caesar Macbeth † Hamlet Troilus and Cressida  ‡ King Lear Othello Antony and Cleopatra Cymbeline  *

Poems:

Poems Shakespeare's sonnets Venus and Adonis The Rape of Lucrece The Passionate Pilgrim The Phoenix and the Turtle A Lover's Complaint

Lost plays:

Lost plays Love's Labour's Won The history of Cardenio  †

Apocrypha:

Apocrypha Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Edward III Locrine The London Prodigal The Puritan The Second Maiden's tragedy Sir John Oldcastle Thomas Lord Cromwell A Yorkshire Tragedy Sir Thomas More

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