Basal Ganglia

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Basal Ganglia : 

Basal Ganglia By Dr. Vaibhav Anjankar Govt. medical college, Nagpur (India)

Basal Ganglia (Nuclei) : 

Basal Ganglia (Nuclei)

Development of Basal Ganglia : 

Development of Basal Ganglia

Corpus Striatum : 

Corpus Striatum

Corpus Striatum : 

Corpus Striatum

Caudate Nucleus : 

Caudate Nucleus

Relations of head of Caudate nucleus : 

Relations of head of Caudate nucleus

Head of Caudate Nucleus : 

Head of Caudate Nucleus

Caudate Nucleus : 

Caudate Nucleus

Lentiform Nucleus : 

Lentiform Nucleus

Lentiform Nucleus : 

Lentiform Nucleus Claustrum External Capsule Insula External medullary lamina Internal medullary lamina

Microanatomy of Corpus Striatum : 

Microanatomy of Corpus Striatum

Microanatomy of Globus Pallidus : 

Microanatomy of Globus Pallidus

Connections of Corpus Striatum : 

Connections of Corpus Striatum

Afferent Connections of Corpus Striatum : 

Afferent Connections of Corpus Striatum Cortico-striate fibers Thalamo-striate fibers Nigro-striate fibers Brainstem-striate fibers

Efferent Connections of Corpus Striatum : 

Efferent Connections of Corpus Striatum Striato-pallidal fibers Striato-nigral fibers

Connections of Globus Pallidus : 

Connections of Globus Pallidus Afferent- Striato-pallidal fibers Efferents (palido-fugal fibers)- Ansa lenticularis Fasciculus lenticularis Pallido-tegmental fibers Pallido-thalamic fibers

Fasciculus lenticularis : 

Fasciculus lenticularis Ansa lenticularis Thalamic fasciculus Dentato-rubro-thalamic tract Connections of Basal Ganglia

Claustrum : 

Claustrum Claustrum External Capsule Insula External medullary lamina Internal medullary lamina

Amygdaloid Body : 

Amygdaloid Body

Connections of Amygdala : 

Connections of Amygdala

Functions & Clinical aspects of Amygdala : 

Functions & Clinical aspects of Amygdala

Substantia nigra : 

Substantia nigra Pars Compacta Pars Reticulata

Connections of Substantia nigra : 

Connections of Substantia nigra Pars Compacta Pars reticularis Corpus Striatum Thalamus Dopamine ( - ) GABA ( - ) Substania nigra

Sub thalamus (Body of Luys) : 

Sub thalamus (Body of Luys)

Zona Incerta : 

Zona Incerta

Functions of Basal Ganglia : 

Functions of Basal Ganglia

Neural circuitry involved in functioning of basal ganglia : 

Neural circuitry involved in functioning of basal ganglia CEREBRAL CORTEX STRIATUM GLOBUS PALLIDUS SUBSTANTIA NIGRA BRAINSTEM & SPINAL CORD SUBTHALAMUS THALAMUS

Blood Supply of Basal Ganglia : 

Blood Supply of Basal Ganglia

Clinical Aspects : 

Clinical Aspects Parkinsonism Chorea Huntington’s chorea Sydenham’s chorea (St. Vitus dance) Athetosis Ballismus Wilsons disease

Parkinsonism(paralysis agitans) : 

Parkinsonism(paralysis agitans) Clinical features- Tremors Rigidity Pill rolling movements of hand Mask like facies Stiff shuffling gait Stooped posture Slowing down of movements

Slide 32: 

Types of Parkinsonism- Post encephalitic parkinsonism Iatrogenic parkinsonism Atherosclerotic parkinsonism Treatment of Parkinsonism Administration of l- dopa Stereotactic surgery Striatal implants Pallidotomy Deep Brain Stimulation

Slide 33: 

Athetosis Ballismus Hepato-lenticular degeneration

Hemiballismus : 

CORTEX PUTAMEN GP externa STN GP interna VA/VL THALAMUS Glutamate (+) GABA (-) GABA (-) GABA (-) Glutamate (+) Glutamate (+) Hemiballismus

Chorea : 

Chorea Sydenham’s chorea (St. Vitus dance) Onset - childhood CT scan- no findings Full recovery Huntington’s chorea AD disorder Single gene defect on chromosome 4. Onset- late adult life CT scan- enlarged lateral ventricles No Recovery

Huntington’s Disease : 

Huntington’s Disease

Thank you…..! : 

Thank you…..!

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