Three Bases of Curriculum: 1 Three Bases of Curriculum Human Development, Learning, & Social Forces Agosto FOC/USF Slide 2: 2 Bases of Curriculum Human development, learning, social forces (related to curriculum/instruction) Curriculum Leadership Activity Outline Slide 3: Bases of the Curriculum 1 . Human Development personality, (i. e., moral) cognition , behavior 3 Slide 4: 4 Personality Jean Piaget: Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Sigmund Freud: Stage Theory of Psychosexual Development Erik Erickson Stages of Psychosocial Development, Identity Crisis (social, lifespan) (Freud) Lawrence Kohlberg (1970s) Stage Theory of Moral development (Piaget) Carol Gilligan (1980s): Stage Theory of Moral Development (for women, critiques Kohlberg) females: responsibility & relationships males: rights & rules Areas of Human Development BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY : BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY Observable change Stimulus = response Outside of learner Learning by design Stimulus = motivation Activity - conditioning Rewarded responses --B.F. Skinner 1878-1958 --J.B. Watson 1904-1990 --I. Pavlov 1849-1936 Expressions in Curriculum/Instruction 5 ADDIE Process ( Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate ). SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 6 External cues Thought– action Learning is social Socialization (acquiring beliefs, habits, behaviors) Across settings Unlimited capacity Modeling Observational -- Alfred Bandura Social Cognitive Sciences (linguistics, psychology, anthropology, computer science) : Social Cognitive Sciences (linguistics, psychology, anthropology, computer science) Mental processes Unobservable (storage, retrieval) Reaction to external Personal meaning, Generalizations, principles --Jerome Bruner (constructivism) Man : A Course of Study (1960-70’s): Q: beliefs, morality “Narrative construction of reality” (1991) in Critical Inquiry Intuition: An essential feature of productive thinking Expressed in Curriculum/Instruction Spiral Curriculum, Advance O rganizers, Discovery Learning, Authentic A ssessment, Problems /Inquiry Approach 7 Constructivism (1980s) : Constructivism (1980s) 8 Major contributors to constructivism: J. Piaget, J . Dewey, L. Vygotsky , J. Bruner Construct knowledge Make sense of new information Construct meaning from prior knowledge Focus on students’ thinking about the material Prompts and questions F ocus on deep understandings of new material Slide 9: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) child’s cognitive skills mature w/assistance of a more-skilled person. Curriculum/Instruction Scaffolding : changing the level of support Problem- based/ project-based learning/ inquiry learning Cooperative Learning (i.e., jigsaw) SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Socio-Cultural L earning Theory 9 Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York : Longman. Bloom, B. S. & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York , Longmans. : Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl , D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York : Longman. Bloom, B. S. & Krathwohl , D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York , Longmans. 10 Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956 Revised 2001 Slide 11: Curriculum design: Equip students w/ knowledge, skills, & dispositions useful in/out of school Instructional goals: Dev . student expertise, conceptual understandings & self-regulated application of skills Curriculum balance of breadth & depth: Limited content, develops it sufficiently to foster conceptual understanding. Content organized: Limited set of powerful ideas (basic understandings & principles). Teachers: Not just present info, scaffold & respond to student’s efforts. Students: Not just absorb/copy, actively make sense & construct meaning . Students’ prior knowledge elicited as starting place for instruction, builds on accurate prior knowledge & stimulates conceptual change if needed (Good & Brophy , 2003, pp. 420-421). Elements of E ffective C onstructivism in Curriculum & Instruction 11 Slide 12: 12 Models of Instructional Systems Design (ISD) 1970s ADDIE – 5 step model: Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, Evaluate FSU armed forces ( Branson , Rayner , Cox, Furman, King, Hannum , 1975; Watson, 1981) Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model (1978) Interrelationships : Context , content, learning, instruction 1990s Understanding by Design ( UbD ) - “Backward Design ” From outcome to design (curricular units, assessments, instruction) -Wiggins : & McTighe (1998) -Association of Supervision & Curriculum Development (ASCD) -Connection to Differentiated Instruction (see Tomlinson & McTighe , 2006) 2000’s OAR (Objectives, Resources, Activities) Model - Joeckel , Gardner, & Jeon (2008) -Distance Education through a learning management system (e. g., Blackboard). Slide 13: Utah State University at the Faculty Assistance Center for Teaching (2008) by George Joeckel , Joel Gardner and Tae Jeon Acquisition activities: Opp’s for students to gain knowledge and skills. Application activities: Opp’s for students to demonstrate knowledge and skills. Slide 14: 14 Shneiderman , B. (2002). Leonardo's laptop : Human needs and the new computing technologies . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Collect : Gather information and acquire resources Relate : Work in collaborative teams Create : Develop ambitious projects Donate : Produce results that are meaningful to someone outside the classroom Curriculum/Instructional Design Base 2: Learning Styles: Base 2: Learning Styles 15 Approaches and ways of learning Factors affecting ways of learning and demonstrating understanding Motivation, Intelligences , Culture Approaches to Curriculum that consider ways of learning and demonstrating understanding Slide 16: 16 Models and Scales Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. Dichotomies Extraversion (E) - (I) Introversion Sensing (S) - (N) Intuition Thinking (T) - (F) Feeling Judgment (J) - (P) Perception Slide 17: 17 Models and Scales Model of Learning Styles b y Anthony Gregorc & Kathleen Butler Perceptual qualities: Concrete and abstract Ordering abilities: Random and sequential Gregorc Style Delineator Research Edition (Gregorc, 1982): Gregorc Style Delineator Research Edition ( Gregorc , 1982) Concrete sequential : orderly, step-by-step, structured, practical, accurate, factual, according to standards, directions-oriented, organized, hands-on, reliable, detailed, particular, and exact. Abstract sequential: logical, academic, structured, intellectual, a reader, a researcher, theoretical, evaluative, analytical, value judge, thinker, debater, and studious. Abstract random : sensitivity, emotion, personalization, imagination, interpretation, holistic view, aesthetic appreciation, part of a social group, discussion, reflection upon feelings, flexibility, and adaptability. Concrete random: independence, creativity, calculated risk-taking, varied and unusual approaches, variety of options, experimenter, inventor, problem-solver, investigator, intuition, agent of change (Butler, 1984; Gregorc & Butler, 1983). FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING STYLES: FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING STYLES 19 PHYSICAL NEEDS EMOTIONALITY ENVIRONMENT SOCIOLOGICAL PREFERENCES CULTURAL INFLUENCES Slide 20: 20 FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING STYLES CULTURE Style and/or preference for learning /teaching ( engagement w/social & material) is informed by culture. Field Dependent (culture w/ high social context) Field-Independent ( w/ low social context) Approach: Culturally M inded, Responsive , Competent , Relevant, Appropriate, Resonant) curriculum/pedagogy (Gay , 2002 ; Ladson-Billings,1995 ) THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 21 Behavioral: External stimuli Cognitive: Intrinsic forces , extrinsic relations ( constructivism) Personality: Need for achievement varies Humanistic: Human needs ( M aslow) A. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs 1943 A Theory of Human Motivation: A. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs 1943 A Theory of Human Motivation 22 Daniel Pink : Daniel Pink Motivation 23 Intelligence(s): Shapes Learning Style(s): Intelligence(s): Shapes Learning Style(s ) Slide 25: 25 Multiple Intelligences: H. Gardner (1983) At least seven human intelligences: Logical-Mathematical Verbal-linguistic Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal 1990’s : Eighth... Naturalistic [ instinctive, intuitive ability to discriminate what is nature, literature, art]. Slide 26: 26 In the heyday of the psychometric and behaviorist eras, it was generally believed that intelligence was a single entity that was inherited ; and that human beings - initially a blank slate - could be trained to learn anything, provided that it was presented in an appropriate way. Nowadays an increasing number of researchers believe precisely the opposite; that there exists a multitude of intelligences, quite independent of each other ;…(Gardner, 1993). (my emphasis) Frame s of Mind: A Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1993) Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered: Book Link Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered Edited by Joe Kincheloe ( 2004) Slide 28: 28 Psychologist Robert Sternberg (2003) Intelligence in 3 parts: T riarchic T heory of Intelligence Analytical intelligence: ability to complete academic, problem-solving tasks, (i.e., those used in traditional intelligence tests). Usually presents well-defined problems with a single correct answer. Creative or synthetic intelligence: ability to successfully deal with new and unusual situations - drawing on existing knowledge and skills. Individuals high CI may give 'wrong‘ answers because they see things from a different perspective. Practical intelligence : ability to adapt to everyday life by drawing on existing knowledge and skills. PI enables an individual to understand what needs to be done in a specific setting and then do it. Spiritual Intelligence (SQ): Spiritual Intelligence (SQ) "SQ: The Ultimate Intelligence", (2000) By Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall. Spiritual Intelligence is what we use to develop our longing and capacity for meaning, vision and value. - facilitates a dialogue between reason and emotion, between mind and body. - allows us to integrate the intrapersonal and the interpersonal, to transcend the gap between self and other . - spiritus : "that which gives life or vitality to a system - 12 qualities or principles of SQ 12 principles or qualities of SQ: 12 principles or qualities of SQ Self-awareness: Knowing what I believe in and value, and what deeply motivates me Spontaneity: Living in and being responsive to the moment Being vision- and value-led: Acting from principles & deep beliefs, and living accordingly Holism: Seeing larger patterns, relationships, & connections; having a sense of belonging Compassion: Having the quality of "feeling-with" and deep empathy Celebration of diversity: Valuing other people for their differences, not despite them Field independence: Standing against the crowd and having one's own convictions Humility: Having the sense of being a player in a larger drama, one's place in the world Tendency to ask fundamental "Why?" questions: Needing to understand things and get to the bottom of them Ability to reframe: Standing back from a situation or problem and seeing the bigger picture; seeing problems in a wider context Positive use of adversity: Learning and growing from mistakes, setbacks, and suffering Sense of vocation: Feeling called upon to serve, to give something back Emotions (cognitive and sensory processes): Emotions (cognitive and sensory processes) Relation between cognition and emotion Examples: morality, decision making, creativity Conscious and non-conscious Daniel Goleman (1997) IQ to EQ Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Emotional Intelligence: “a trait not measured by IQ tests”, “a set of skills, including control of one's impulses, self-motivation, empathy and social competence in interpersonal relationships”. 31 E. Q.: E. Q. Goleman , D., Boyatzis , R., and McKee, A. (2003). Primal l eadership , Appendix B, pp. 253-255, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Emotional Intelligence Personal Competence (how we manage ourselves) Self-awareness Self-management Social Competence (how we manage relationships) Social awareness Relationship management Slide 33: 33 Inform the design of instructional materials and performances (products, processes) as well as their outcomes (effects). Theories of Learning & Human Development Differentiation (Personalization): Differentiation (Personalization) 34 Content Process Products Environment 3: SOCIAL FORCES: 3: SOCIAL FORCES 35 Changing values and morality Family structure Ethnic and cultural diversity Environment Technology Work and workforce Equal rights Crime and violence Lack of purpose and meaning Global interdependence ( i.E. , Globalization) Slide 36: 36 PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT (PSA) School Leaders Confront Social Issues via Curriculum Produce a 30 second PSA using 6 thinking hats Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial advertisements that are broadcast for the public good. Media outlets regularly allocate free time/space for PSA’s. In the U.S., health & public safety issues …most PSA air time. Should be clear and well-executed. Should be interesting to the general public Should lend themselves to brief delivery. Should include relevant subject matter that benefits many. • Generally promotes a local program — with national support. • Based on thorough research Have excellent production value. It All Adds Up offers a variety of free, commercial-quality, professionally-produced public service announcements. Ad Council.org offers a variety of PSA’s distributed nationally. Public Service Announcement: Public Service Announcement College Access //PSA: //PSA Arts Advocacy: Case Study: Arts Advocacy: Case Study 39 The principal is opting to reduce arts in the high school c urriculum due to budget cuts. As assistant principal and advocate of the arts you have been asked by some concerned parents to advocate on their behalf. Create a plan to infuse dance into the curriculum. Use six thinking hats to organize and plan. Consider: Who is/are the audience; stakeholders ; participants? Which base(s) support your advocacy? Which definition of curriculum are you invoking? Which curriculum ideologies are you reflecting? Options PSA on a Social Issue (focus on social forces) or Arts-Based Advocacy of Dance (focus on learning, human development) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Motivating Question: What leadership action can you take to support curriculum/instructional design or content in your school? : Options PSA on a Social Issue (focus on social forces) or Arts-Based Advocacy of Dance (focus on learning, human development) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Motivating Question: What leadership action can you take to support curriculum/instructional design or content in your school?