introduction to sociology

Category: Education

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socioloy introduction


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Sociology: Definition: “ Sociology is the scientific study of human society and social interactions.”

Sociology and business::

Sociology and business: Sociology study human groups and human groups are the base of human resource in business.  We can develop best techniques about administration if we apply sociology.

Sociology and Science::

Sociology and Science: Science is “...a body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws.” As a science, sociology employs the scientific method

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The Scientific Method The approach used by sociologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about society and other phenomena of interest

Sociology and Science::

The Scientific Method Sociology and Science : Formulate hypotheses Choose research design Analyze data Analyze Data Find a question


Hypothesis: A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variable.


Variable : Behaviors ,events ,or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way.

Operational definition::

Operational definition: Operational definition: defines the variables in term of how it is to be measured, manipulated, or changed.


Observation Observation: Observation of naturally occurring behavior without intervention


Observation Non participant observation: to observe people without them knowing


Observation Participant Observation: involves the researcher being open with the group they are going to study.

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2. Survey research A sample of people are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, and attitudes in order to represent a larger population.


When conducting research sociologists (or any social scientist) often use representative samples of the population they are studying. Sampling:

Tools of survey::

Tools of survey: Questionnaire : A form containing a list of questions; a means of gathering information for a survey. Open ended question Close ended question

Questionnaire ::

Questionnaire : Open ended questionnaire : Unstructured question in which possible answers are not suggested, and the respondent answers it in his or her own words. Close ended questionnaire : That provides a set of answers from which the respondent must choose.

Tools of survey::

Interview: is a conversation with a purpose. Structured interview Unstructured interview Tools of survey :


Interview: Structured interview: Fixed format interview in which all questions are prepared beforehand and are put in the same order to each interviewee. Unstructured interview : Interview without any set format but in which the interviewer may have some key questions formulated in advance

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Experimental method : 3. Experiment: The relationship between 2 (or more) variables is investigated by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation

Experimental method: :

Experimental method : Example: Higher level of education increases the likelihood of increasing higher income. Independent variable Dependent variable Education income

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Experimental group Any group receiving a treatment Control group A group that receives no treatment


INDEPENDENT & DEPENDENT VARIABLES In an experiment you are measuring & manipulating 2 variables INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT What is manipulated What is measured

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Independent variable (CAUSE, 1 st ) The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable (EFFECT, 2 nd ) The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable


Variable: Independent variable Level of education degree Time spend preparing for quiz Parents income Dependent variable Level of income Performance on quiz Likelihood of children’s enrolling in college

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