Basic Embryology

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Basic Embryology:

Basic Embryology

Embryology:

Embryology Definition: the study of the origin and development of an organism Prenatal period: before birth 38 weeks from conception to birth (average) “fetal” age Gynecologic timing has been from LMP therefore refers to 40 weeks “gestational” age Date of conception has been difficult to time LMP is on average two weeks before ovulation

Traditional (artificial) division::

Traditional (artificial) division: “Embryonic” period: first 8 weeks (2months) All major organs formed “Fetal” period: remaining 30 weeks Organs grow larger and become more complex Period of specialization

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 st week implantation in uterus 2 nd week formation of two germ layers 3 rd week formation of three germ layers basis of all the fetal organs systems 4 th week most of organs starts developing HEART STARTS BEATING IMPORTANT PERIOD FOR TERRATOGENISIS

PowerPoint Presentation:

PERIOD OF GROWTH AND SPECIALIZATION

PowerPoint Presentation:

Fertilization to Implantation EVENTS OF 1 ST WEEK

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ovulation: egg released into the peritoneal cavity Travels down fallopian tube in which fertilization occurs At conception in fallopian tube, maternal and paternal genetic material join to form a new human life (zygote) Cell division occurs with travel down the tube and into the uterus Conception (biology) or fertilisation, the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism of the same species (Wikipedia)

Week 1 post conception :

Week 1 post conception Zygote divides repeatedly moving down tube toward uterus (cleavage) The daughter cells are called blastomeres Morula : the solid cluster of 12-16 blastomeres at about 72 hours Day 4: late 60 cell morula enters uterus, taking up fluid becoming blastocyst

PowerPoint Presentation:

TOTIPOTENT CELLS PLEURIPOTENT CELLS

Blastocyst stage:

Blastocyst stage Two distinct types of cells Inner cell mass : forms the embryo Trophoblast : layer of cells surrounding the cavity which helps form the placenta Floats for about 3 days Implantation on about day 6 post conception Trophoblast erodes uterine wall Takes 1 week to complete If inner cell mass of a single blastocyst divides: monozygotic (identical) twins _____inner cell mass ______trophoblast

Week 2 TWO LAYER STAGE:

Week 2 TWO LAYER STAGE Inner cell mass divides into epiblast and hypoblast 2 fluid filled sacs Amniotic sac from epiblast Yolk sac from hypoblast Bilaminar embryonic disc : area of contact (gives rise to the whole body)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bilaminar to trilaminar disc Three primary “germ” layers: all body tissues develop from these Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Week 3 THREE LAYER STAGE

Formation of the 3 “germ” layers from epib GASTRULATION :

Formation of the 3 “germ” layers from epib GASTRULATION Primitive streak (groove) on dorsal surface of epiblast Grastrulation: invagination of epiblast cells Days 14-15: they replace hypoblast becoming endoderm Day 16: mesoderm (a new third layer) formed in between Epiblast cells remaining on surface: ectoderm

The three “germ” tissues:

The three “germ” tissues “Germ” as in germinate, not germs Early specialization of cells Are precursors Ectoderm and endoderm are epithelial tissue (form sheets of tissue) Mesoderm is a mesenchyme tissue Mesenchyme cells are star shaped and do not attach to one another, therefore migrate freely

Notochord:

Notochord Days 16-18 Primitive node epiblast cells invaginate and migrate anteriorly with some endoderm cells Rod defining the body axis is formed Future site of the vertebral column

Neurulation:

Neurulation Notochord signals overlying ectoderm Formation begins of spinal cord and brain (neurulation) Neural plate to neural groove to neural tube: pinched off into body

PowerPoint Presentation:

Closure of neural tube: begins at end of week 3; complete by end of week 4 (folic acid important for this step) Extends cranially (eventually brain) and caudally (spinal cord) Neural crest, lateral ectodermal cells, pulled along and form sensory nerve cells and other structures

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mesoderm begins to differentiate Lateral to notochord, week 3 Extends cranially and caudally (from head to tail or crown to rump) Division of mesoderm into three regions Somites: 40 pairs of body segments (repeating units, like building blocks) by end week 4 Intermediate mesoderm: just lateral to somites Lateral plate: splits to form coelom (“cavity”)

Divisions of the mesodermal lateral plate:

Divisions of the mesodermal lateral plate Somatic mesoderm: apposed to the ectoderm Splanchnic mesoderm: apposed to the endoderm Coelom in between will become the serous cavities of the ventral body cavity: Peritoneal Pericardial Pleural

PowerPoint Presentation:

Folding begins at week 4 (main difference between the 3 week embryo and the adult body is that the embryo is still a flat disc)

PowerPoint Presentation:

24 day embryro; protrudes into amniotic cavity

PowerPoint Presentation:

Day 23, beginning to fold Lateral folds will join ventrally

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cylindrical human body plan, day 28 (about ½ cm) Simplified cross section through abdomen of an adult (essentially the same as above)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Major derivatives of the embryonic germ layers

29 day embryo (this is when the heart starts pumping, about 4 weeks or 1 month, ½ cm size):

29 day embryo ( this is when the heart starts pumping, about 4 weeks or 1 month, ½ cm size)

month 3 month 5 :

month 3 month 5 3 month fetus (6 cm) late 5 th month (about 19 cm)

PowerPoint Presentation:

By 8 weeks, about 2 months, all major organs are in place in at least a rudimentary form; this is why drugs early in pregnancy are so important to avoid – many cause birth defects; baby is a little over 1” long (below right)

authorStream Live Help