Semi solid preparation

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SEMI SOLID PREPARATION : 

MS.WAJIHA IFFAT B.PHARM,M.PHARM,M.B.A ,( Ph.D ) SEMI SOLID PREPARATION

Objectives:: 

Objectives: Define semi solid preparation. discuss Advantages of semi solid preparation . discuss uses of semi solid preparation . Method of preparation of the semi solid preparation Ms.Wajiha 2

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation PASTES: Pastes are the ointment containing as much as 50% powders dispersed in fatty bases. They are intended for external application. They are stiffer. Method Of Preparation : Trituration fusion Examples: compound zinc oxide paste B.P Lassers’s paste B.P ,N.F. METHOD OF APPLICATION: USES: 3 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation TOPICAL GEL: “Gels are transparent or translucent, non greasy, aqueous preparations.” Pharmaceutical gels are two component semi solid preparation which are rich in liquids. Dispersion of small or large molecules in aqueous liquid vehicle rendered jelly like by the addition of gelling agent. 4 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation SINGLE PHASE GEL: Are gels in which the macromolecules are uniformly distributed through out the liquid with no apparent boundaries between the dispersed macromolecules and the liquid. TWO PHASE GELS: A gel mass consisting of floccules of small distinct particles is termed as two phase gel or magma. 5 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation The liquid phase of the gel may be retained within a three dimensional polymer matrix. Drug may be suspended in the matrix or dissolved in the liquid phase. Gel may be thicken on standing ,forming a thixotropes and must be shaken to before use to liquefy the gel & enable pouring. 6 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation ADVANTAGES: They are stable over a long period of time. Good appearance. Suitable vehicles for applying medicament to skin and mucous membranes ,giving high rates of release of medicament & rapid absorption Ms.Wajiha 7

Semi solid preparation : 

Semi solid preparation USES: Anesthetic gels Lubricants for catheters, examination gloves and surgical instruments. Spermicidal Coal tar gels for treatment of psoriasis or eczema Suspending agent & emulsifying agent artificial saliva and tears. 8 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation GELLING AGENTS: Tragacenth Alginates Pectin Gelatin Cellulose derivative Carbomer Polyvinyl alcohol Clays OTHER ADDITIVES: Humectants preservatives 9 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation TRAGACENTH: They are susceptible to microbial degradation , to changes in pH outside the range pH 4.5-7 and to the variation typical of a natural product. The formulation must contain a dispersing agent such as alcohol, glycerol or volatile oil to prevent lumpiness. Concentrations of Tragacenth from 2%-5% produce gels of increasing viscosity. Ms.Wajiha 10

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation ALGINATES: The viscosity of these gels is more standardized than that of Tragacenth. A concentration of 1.5% produces fluid gels and 5-10% gels are suitable as dermatological vehicles. They also require a dispersing agent e.g. glycerol. Ms.Wajiha 11

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation PECTIN: They are suitable for acid products. They are prone to microbial contamination and to water loss by evaporation and may require a humectant. It may be used in combination with other gelling agents e.g. gelatin, sodium CMC. Ms.Wajiha 12

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation STARCH : They are little used as dermatological bases. Mucilages prepared with water alone lose water by evaporation and are prone to microbial contamination. Glycerol concentrations of 50% or greater combine humectant and preservative functions. Ms.Wajiha 13

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation GELATIN: It forms gel at a concentration of 2-15% or more. They are rarely used alone as a dermatological base but may be combined with other ingredients such as pectin and sodium CMC. Ms.Wajiha 14

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation CELLULOSE DERIVATIVES: They are widely used because they produce neutral gels of stable viscosity, good resistance to microbial attacks and a good film strength when dried on the skin. Sodium CMC is easier to dissolve and the medium viscosity grade produces lubricant gels at greater concentrations. HPMC forms exceptionally clear gels, used in ophthalmic products. Ms.Wajiha 15

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation CARBOMER : They are used as bases 0.3-1% for lubricants and in dermatological preparations 0.5-5%. These gels are clear provided that an excessive amount of air is not incorporated during preparation. Ms.Wajiha 16

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation CLAYS: containing 7-20% of bentonite are used as dermatological bases. The powdery residue left on drying may make them more acceptable than some other gels for use on the face. Viscosity is modified by changes in pH. Gels containing about 10% of aluminium magnesium stearate are also suitable bases for medicated gels. Ms.Wajiha 17

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation PVA: They have been used to prepare gels that dry very quickly. The residual film is strong and plastic, giving good contact between the skin and the medicament. The required concentration is usually between 10% and 20% depending on the grade of PVA and the desired viscosity Ms.Wajiha 18

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation HUMECTANTS: like glycerol, propylene glycol or sorbitol solution may be added to retain water, otherwise skin formation may occur. PRESERVATIVES: like methyl and propyl hydroxybenzoates either alone or in combination are suitable for gels containing pectin, carmellose sodium, sodium alginate, Tragacenth, etc CHELATING AGENTS: like EDTA may be used for protection against heavy metals. Ms.Wajiha 19

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation General method of preparation : Heat all component of the gel (with the exception of water ) approximately to 90 ° C. Heat water to approximately 90 ° C. Add water to oil ,stirring continuously .avoid vigorously as this will introduce bubbles. 20 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation Gels have a high water content and therefore are liable to microbial growth, unless preservative is added. Care should be taken to avoid contamination. Ms.Wajiha 21

REFERENCES: 

REFERENCES Sprowls’ American Pharmacy By Lewis.W.Dittert.Pg-233-277. Pharmaceutical Practice By Diana M. Collett pages 125-133 Ansel’s Pharmaceutical Dosage Form & Drug Delivery System By Ansel Pg.277-293 Pharmaceutical Practice By A.J Winfeild.pg.206-217 Pharmaceutical Pre Formulation & Formulation Pg:515-569 Ms.Wajiha 22

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation CATAPLASM: Also called poultices. Is a moist mass of meal ,herb, seed etc., usually applied hot in cloth. Gruel like consistency. Absorptive in nature. Uses: Acts as counter irritantant Localized infectious material in the body. Kaolin poultices NF IX. 23 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation PLASTER: Used for external application and made of such material & have consistency to adhere to skin & attach to dressing. USES: Provide protection & support To furnish occlusive & macerating action To bring close contact with skin. 24 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation CATAPLASM: Also called poultices. Is a moist mass of meal ,herb, seed etc., usually applied hot in cloth. Gruel like consistency. Absorptive in nature. Uses: Acts as counter irritantant Localized infectious material in the body. Kaolin poultices NF IX. 25 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation LOTIONS: B.P defines the lotions as follows: “ Lotions are liquids for cutaneous application that are intended to be applied to the unbroken skin without friction. Lotions are either liquid or semi-liquid preparation that contain one or more active ingredients in an appropriate vehicle. Lotion may contain antimicrobial preservative and other appropriate excipients such as stabilizers. Lotion are usually suspensions of solids in an aqueous medium. Some lotions are infact , emulsions or solution. 26 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation In addition to the therapeutic agent(s), lotion may contain: ■ alcohol : this acts as a coolant (due to evaporation following application) and as a co-solvent. ■ humectants: these act to retain moisture on the skin after application. The most commonly used example is glycerol. ■ vehicle: lotions are aqueous formulations and therefore will contain purified water (with or without the addition of buffer salts). ■ preservatives: ■ components to stabilise the suspended therapeutic agent: if the lotion has been formulated as a suspension, suspending agents are required to maintain the physical stability of the formulation e.g., Bentonite is a good example of a suspending agent used in the preparation of lotion. 27 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation lotion and phenolated calamine lotions . Even though lotions usually are applied without friction, the insoluble matter should be divided very finely. Particles approaching colloidal dimensions are more soothing to inflamed areas and effective in contact infected surface. Certain lotions tend to separate or stratify on long standing and they require a label directing. Shake well before each use. Formulation containing hydrated microcrystalline cellulose and carboxy methyl cellulose have a slower rate of sedimentation than the official preparations. 28 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation Lotion contd: Dermatologists frequently prescribed lotions containing anesthetic , antiseptics , astringent , germicides. Protective or screening agents to be used in heating or preventing different skin disease. Examples are calamine lotion, hydrocortisone 29 Ms.Wajiha

PowerPoint Presentation: 

TOPICAL POWDERS: Also called dusting powders. Particles size should not be more than 150 micro meter. That is less than 100 mesh., To avoid any sensation of grittiness that lead to irritation. Dusting powder usually contain starch, talc, zinc stearate. USES: Absorbent Lubricant 30 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation LINIMENT: Are alcoholic or oleaginous solution , suspension or emulsion of various substances intended to be rubbed to the skin . There are two types of formulation bases that are used in the formulation of liniments: (1) alcohol-based liniments; and (2) oil-based liniments. Liniments are normally employed for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, e.g. sciatica, fibrositis and neuralgia. Examples of oil-based liniments include Camphor Liniment BP and Methyl Salicylate Liniment BP. Soap Liniment BPC is an example of an alcohol-based liniment. 31 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation Alcohol-based liniments act as counterirritants and rubefacients (causing reddening of the skin) and may act to increase the penetration of the drug through the skin. In addition, these formulations will provide a cooling effect due to evaporation of the alcohol base. In Alcohol-based liniments vehicle is alcohol or hydro alcoholic vehicle are used for their rubefacient, counter irritant or penetrating action. 32 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation oil-based liniments . Vehicle in Oleaginous Liniment can be fixed oil (almond, peanut, seaseme cotton seed oil) or volatile substance (winter green or turpentine oil ) or a combination of fixed or volatile oils. Oleaginous Liniment are used when massaged is required. Oleaginous Liniment are less irritating to skin than alcoholic Liniment. Should not be applied to broken skin (irritation). Label: external use , shake well before use (emulsion). 33 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation Topical solution & tinctures: Topical solution employ an aqueous vehicle & tinctures alcoholic vehicle. Co solvents & adjuncts are added to increase the stability or solubility of solute. Most of them are prepared by simple dissolving. some by chemical reaction method. Most the Topical solution & tinctures are self preserved. Example of Topical solution :aluminum acetate topical solution, aluminum sub acetate topical solution, calcium hydroxide topical solution Coal tar topical solution Hydrogen peroxide topical solution Povidone iodine topical solution Thimersal topical solution Example of tincture is: iodine tincture Compound benzoin tincture Thimersal tincture Packaged in a container that make them convenient to use. 34 Ms.Wajiha

Semi solid preparation: 

Semi solid preparation COLLODIONS: Are liquid preparation composed of pyroxylin dissolved in the solvent mixture usually composed of alcohol and ether with or with out medicinal substances. Pyroxylin( soluble cotton ,colliodion cotton) obtained by the action of a mixture of nitric & sulphuric acid on cotton ,consist chiefly of tetra nitrate. Pyroxylin like collodions is highly flammable and must be stored away from flame in a well closed container ,protected from light. Label: external use only. Uses: protective to skin When medicated it leaves a thin layer of the medication. Examples: Salicylic Acid Collodion 35 Ms.Wajiha

PowerPoint Presentation: 

36 Ms.Wajiha