Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology- 25TH BATCH

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PHARMACEUTICAL NANOTECHNOLOGY:

PHARMACEUTICAL NANOTECHNOLOGY Presented by: AIUB ALI 25 th Batch Department of Pharmacy UODA

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION The word ‘nano’ is derived from Latin word, which means dwarf. Nano size refers to one thousand millionth of a particular unit thus nanometer is one thousand millionth of a metre (i.e. 1nm = 10 -9 m). Nanotechnology is related to design characterization, production and applications of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology’ embraces applications of nanoscience to pharmacy as nanomaterials, and as devices like drug delivery, diagnostic, imaging and biosensor. Nanomedicine is defined as submicron size (<1um) modules, used for treatment, diagnosis, monitoring, and control of biological system.

USES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN PHARMACY:

USES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN PHARMACY

EXAMPLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN PHARMACY:

EXAMPLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN PHARMACY Nanomaterials Nanodevices Nanoparticles Carbon nanotubes Quantum Dots Dendrimers

DEFINITION OF CANCER :

DEFINITION OF CANCER Disease caused by uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. It can be also defined as a malignant growth or tumor resulting from such a division of cells.

COMMON TYPES OF CANCER :

COMMON TYPES OF CANCER 1 Bladder cancer 2 Breast cancer 3 Colon and Rectal Cancer 4 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 5 Endometrial Cancer 6 Pancreatic Cancer 7 Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer 8 Prostate Cancer 9 Leukemia 10 Thyroid Cancer

TARGETED DELIVERY TO TUMORS:

TARGETED DELIVERY TO TUMORS Goal is to inject treatment far from tumor and have large accumulation in tumor and minimal accumulation in normal cells/organs.

PowerPoint Presentation:

CANCER TREATMENTS Tumor penetration is a key issue for successful chemotherapy

PowerPoint Presentation:

NANOPARTICLE USE IN CANCER TREATMENT Because of their small size, nanoparticles can pass through interstitial spaces between necrotic and quiescent cells. Tumor cells typically have larger interstitial spaces than healthy cells Particles collect in center brining therapeutics to kill the tumor from inside out.

MAKING GOLD NANOPARTICLES:

MAKING GOLD NANOPARTICLES AuCl4- salts are reduced using NaBH 4 in the presence of thiol capping ligands The core size of the particles formed can be varied from <1 nm to ~ 8 nm The surface functionality can be controlled through the choice of thiols Diffusion speed can be controlled by length of thiols

NANOPARTICLES AS SENSORS AND THERAPEUTICS :

NANOPARTICLES AS SENSORS AND THERAPEUTICS Glutathione (GSH) provides a selective and tunable release mechanism Once inside cells, fluorophores and drugs selectively dissociate

PowerPoint Presentation:

NANOPARTICLE SUCCESS Both cationic and anionic particles penetrate and accumulate in tumors. However, only cationic particles diffuse fully throughout the tumor. Work of Neil Forbes and Vince Rotello at UMASS

PowerPoint Presentation:

NANOPARTICLE TARGETING AND ACCUMULATION To maximize their effectiveness, the microenvironment of the tumor must be quantified and vectors developed to specifically target the tumor. These treatment approaches have shown great promise in mice. Necrotic Quiescent Proliferating Therapeutic

ALTERNATIVES TO NANOPARTICLES - SURFACTANTS:

ALTERNATIVES TO NANOPARTICLES - SURFACTANTS Surfactants are composed of a hydrophillic head and hydrophobic tail When dissolved in water above the critical micellar concentration (CMC) surfactants can self-assemble into large aggregate Spherical micelles are around10nm in size Hydrophobic drugs can be encapsulated and in their core and delivered throughout the body or to a specific target.

NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TISSUE ENGINEERING CARTILAGE REPLACEMENT:

NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TISSUE ENGINEERING CARTILAGE REPLACEMENT Over 15 million people worldwide suffer from knee-joint failure each year due to cartilage deterioration and 1 million spinal surgeries are needed every year When cartilage breaks down, the resulting contact of bones causes pain, swelling, and loss of movement. As observed over the past 250 years, normal (hyaline-type) cartilage is not known to repair itself. Mechanism not fully understood, but cartilage cells, chondrocytes, are sparsely distributed in tissue with poor vasculature, and actually continue to deteriorate after a traumatic incident  osteoarthritis . www.allaboutarthritis.com

CURRENT TREATMENTS:

CURRENT TREATMENTS Because cartilage doesn’t have vasculature and cannot repair itself, accepted treatments have been mostly mechanical in their approach. Joint lubricants: Simple and effective at short-term pain relief but do not address cause of the problem or repair any damage. Debridement/lavage/microfracture: Small lesions are repaired by shaving or shaping contour of cartilage. Microfracture penetrates subchondral plate (bone) and actually causes growth of fibrocartilage – a lesser form, not desirable. Total joint replacement: Addresses problem and generally allows full repair, but Very invasive procedure, native tissue removed Prostheses do not last a lifetime in active patients.

HYDROGELS – SELF ASSEMBLY:

HYDROGELS – SELF ASSEMBLY Hydrogels have applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering Regenerating cartilage and other tissue requires scaffolds with similar modulus and other mechanical properties → Need to develop stiffer, tunable hydrogels We are currently looking at Polylactide-Polyethylene Oxide-Polylactide triblock copolymers. Systems are biocompatible with a hydrophobic ends (PLA) and a hydrophilic center (PEO) which self-assembles in water and can form a gel under the right conditions CMC Gelation Triblock Copolymer Micelle Gel Reinforced Through Addition of Nanoparticles

HYDROXYAPATITE (HAP) NANOPARTICLES:

HYDROXYAPATITE (HAP) NANOPARTICLES Hydroxyapatite (a type of Calcium phosphate) is a mineral found in bone and enamel Bioactive material capable of bonding to living tissue HAP nanowhiskers are 20-80 nm in width but up to 100’s of nm in length, and they have a high tendency to aggregate Can HAP serve as a new junction point? Initial results are promising, but still a work in progress

NANOBIOLOGY MEASUREMENTS USING AN AFM:

The atomic force microscopy (AFM) is tool that allows us to image the 3D structure of proteins, cells, viruses and bacteria. By modifying the tip to attach enzymes, proteins or different chemical groups, we can also measure interaction strengths/energies between these groups and cell etc. NANOBIOLOGY MEASUREMENTS USING AN AFM

BioMEMS:

Goal is to develop handheld diagnostic devices for personalized medical testing and treatment BioMEMS Biomedical Analysis and Communication System Disposable Diagnostic BioChip

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