logging in or signing up 12.1,12.2 - Ecosystem concept unitbiokmns Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1076 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: July 10, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 2 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: 12.2: Ecosystem conceptPowerPoint Presentation: OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: Explain Ecosystem concept. Explain the components of the ecosystem with examples: Biotic components: autotroph/producer, heterotroph/ consumer (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores) and decomposers. Abiotic components: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.PowerPoint Presentation: iii. Interactions between/ among biotic components: competition, parasitism, predation, commensalism and mutualism. iv. Interactions between biotic and abiotic components.Ecosystem - Definition according to Odum (1969): Ecosystem - Definition according to Odum (1969) 4 “The basic functional unit of nature including both organisms (biotic) and their non-living environment (abiotic) , each interacting with the other and influencing each other’s properties and both necessary for the maintenance and development of the system .”PowerPoint Presentation: 6 Based on Odum , the structure of an ecosystem consist of 3 divisions:PowerPoint Presentation: 7 1) The ecological community , including all its species, the number of individuals in each species, the biomass (total weight of all the living), and the life histories and dispersion pattern of the species.PowerPoint Presentation: 8 2) The quantity and distribution of abiotic materials , such as water and nutrients, in which the organisms interactPowerPoint Presentation: 9 3)The range of physical conditions , such as temperature, light intensity, wind and water velocityPowerPoint Presentation: 10 The function of an ecosystem consists of all the interactions among its components. Three important functional traits of the ecosystem: The rate at which chemicals cycle within the ecosystem , from abiotic to biotic and back to abiotic components. 2) The rate at which energy flows through the biotic components, from solar energy to the chemical energy within organic molecules to heat. 3) The persistence of the ecosystem through time.PowerPoint Presentation: Ecosystem BIOTIC COMPONENTS ABIOTIC COMPONENT Interact with each other Maintenance of the system Autotroph /Producer Heterotroph/ Consumer (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores) Decomposer/ detritivores Atmosphere Hydrosphere LithospherePowerPoint Presentation: 12 Explain what is meant by an ecosystem –PSPM 06/07 - Ecosystem is made up of living and non living thing/ biotic and abiotic components. -Biotic components consists of producers, consumers and decomposers/ detritivores. -Collectively known as community, -interact/ connected to one another by one way energy flow. -Involved cycling of material/nutrients -with their abiotic/ environment . -It is an open system -unable to sustain itself. -Each ecosystem requires an energy input from the sun. -Involved energy and nutrient outputs. -Energy cannot be recycled but nutrient are recycled -The efficiency of energy flow and nutrient cycle stabilizes/ sustain the ecosystemPowerPoint Presentation: i. Autotroph / Producer BIOTIC COMPONENT The living things Encompassing all species of organisms (plants and animals) , the population size of each species, the biomass (energy) and distribution patterns.PowerPoint Presentation: 14 BIOTIC COMPONENT 1. Autotroph/producer 2. Heterotroph/consumer 3. DecomposersPowerPoint Presentation: 15 Autotroph is an organism that obtain organic molecules by synthesizing them from inorganic materials . Also called producer, because they manufacture their own organic materials by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis Autotroph can be divided into two subcomponents, basically sources of energy that obtained for synthesizing organic matter. - Photoautotroph. - Chemoautotroph. AUTOTROPH/PRODUCERPowerPoint Presentation: Photoautotroph An organism that synthesizes its organic materials from inorganic components using energy derived from the sun in the process photosynthesis. Example : green plant. Chemoautotroph An organism that synthesize organic materials using energy derived from the oxidation of inorganic chemicals, rather than from sunlight. Example : Nitrosomonas (oxidizing ammonia to nitrite).PowerPoint Presentation: 17 Organisms that cannot synthesize their own food from inorganic materials and therefore must live depend on autotroph, other heterotrophs, or upon decaying matter. Also called consumers. HETEROTROPH/CONSUMERPowerPoint Presentation: 18 herbivores carnivores omnivores Detritivores / Decomposers Types of heterotroph Heterotroph can be divided into 4 type of organisms:PowerPoint Presentation: 19 A herbivore is an animal that gets its energy from eating only plants Eg.: Cow, giraffe HERBIVOREPowerPoint Presentation: 20 A carnivore is an animal that gets food from killing and eating other animals. Carnivores generally eat herbivores, but can eat omnivores, and occasionally other carnivores. Animals that eat other animals, like carnivores and omnivores are important to any ecosystem, because they keep other species from getting overpopulated. CARNIVORE Eg: Tiger, crocodile, lionPowerPoint Presentation: OMNIVORE An omnivore is a kind of animal that eats other animals and plants. Some omnivores will hunt and eat their food, like carnivores, eating herbivores and other omnivores. Omnivores eat plants, but not all kinds of plants. Unlike herbivores, omnivores can't digest some of the substances in grains or other plants 21SCAVENGERS: 22 SCAVENGERS Scavengers are animals that find dead animals or plants and eat them. They also break them into small bits. Flies, hyena and cockroaches are scavengers. Earthworms are also scavengers, but they only break down plants.PowerPoint Presentation: DETRITIVORES An organism (such as an earthworm, snails, beetles or crab) that consumes fragments of dead organic parts/organisms ; also called detritus feeder Detritus means small particulate organic material of uncertain and variable origin. Detritus = dead organic matter. Organisms that consume organic litter, debris, and dung. Detritivores decompose the organic material in an ecosystem and transfer the chemical elements in organic forms to abiotic reserviors such as soil 23PowerPoint Presentation: 24 A heterotroph that breaks down organics material to release the inorganic nutrients They use the decomposition products to supply it with energy. Decomposers are saprophytic bacteria and fungi Also called saprophyte DECOMPOSER Bacteria FungiPowerPoint Presentation: a) Scavengers are animals that find dead animals or plants and eat them. They also break them into small bits . Hyena, flies, and cockroaches are scavengers. Earthworms are also scavengers, but they only break down plants. b) Once a scavenger done its job, the decomposers take over, and finish the job . Many kinds of decomposers are saprophytic bacteria and fungi.PowerPoint Presentation: 26 a) Scavengers b) Decomposers Bacteria, prefer breaking down meat or waste from carnivores. Certain kinds of fungi, prefer fruits and vegetables.PowerPoint Presentation: Conclusions: The autotrophs are the primary producers , and are usually photosynthetic (plants or algae). Heterotrophs are at trophic levels above the primary producers and depend on their photosynthetic output. Herbivores that eat primary producers are called primary consumers. Carnivores that eat primary consumer are called secondary consumers. Carnivores that eat secondary consumer are called tertiary consumers.PowerPoint Presentation: 28PowerPoint Presentation: 29 Important group of heterotrophs is the detritivores/decomposers; which play an important role in material cycling. Decomposition connects all trophic levels. The organisms that feed as decomposers / detritivores often form a major link between the primary producers and the consumers in an ecosystem. Decomposers eat dead materials and break them down into chemical parts. Nitrogen, carbon and other nutrients can then be used again by plants and animals.PowerPoint Presentation: 30 Abiotic components are the nonliving chemical and physical factors. Eg: temperature, light, water, climate, soil, humidity and nutrients to which an organism is exposed. ABIOTIC COMPONENTSPowerPoint Presentation: Chemical factors. Inorganic matter – nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide. Organic matter – carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid. b) Physical factors. Climate – rain, humidity, wind, temperature, winter, summer. Topography – altitude, latitude, Edaphic (soil) factors - acidity, water content, soil profile , nutrient conditionsPowerPoint Presentation: Abiotic components are : Atmosphere – made up of gases and airborne particles that envelop the Earth. Hydrosphere – waters of the Earth, including the ocean, polar ice caps, and other forms of liquid and frozen water. Lithosphere – the soil and sediments of the Earth’s outer, rocky layerPowerPoint Presentation: 33 Competition Parasitisme Predation Commensalisme Mutualism KEY TERMS Interactions Between Biotic ComponentsPowerPoint Presentation: 34 Discuss the types of interaction between the biotic components in an ecosystem – PSPM 08/09 Competition – a relationship in which two or more individuals strive to obtain the same limited resources Parasitism – a relationship in which one species benefit and the other/ host is adversely affected Predation – a relationship in which one species/ predator eats another species/ prey Commensalism – a relationship in which one organism/ commensal benefits while the other organism remains unharmed/ unaffected Mutualism – a relationship in which both species benefitPowerPoint Presentation: 35 Living organisms interact in a variety of ways No organism exists independent of other living things The producers, consumers and decomposers of a community interact with one another in a variety of complex ways and each forms associations with other organisms Eg: energy transfer through food web and food chain INTERACTION BETWEEN BIOTIC COMPONENTSPowerPoint Presentation: 36 Examples of interactions between biotic components : Competition Predation Parasitism Commensalism MutualismPowerPoint Presentation: 37 COMPETITION Competition occurs when two or more individuals struggle to obtain the same limited resources. Results in reduction by numbers of one / both competitors, or the competing populations coexist Example : 1) compete for light, nutrient & space for plants. 2) compete for food, shelter and mate for animalsPowerPoint Presentation: 38 COMPETITION intraspecific competition Competition between individuals of the same species interspecific competition Competition between individuals of different speciesPowerPoint Presentation: PREDATION Predation is an interaction between two populations of animals in which one (the predator) hunts, captures and kills the other (the prey) for food. Prey-predator relationship/ interactions; where one of the partners benefits and the other is harmed. Eg : The interactions between the tiger and the deerPowerPoint Presentation: Most predators are larger than their prey and they have special adaptations to help them find and catch their prey. They are important in food chains and regulating population.PowerPoint Presentation: An increase in the predator will result in decrease in the prey population This will decrease the predator population, enable an increase in the prey populationPowerPoint Presentation: Symbiosis Symbiosis is an interaction between individuals of different species (symbionts), where they live in direct contact with one another The term is usually restricted to interactions in which helpful or neutral, and certain as harmfulPowerPoint Presentation: COMMENSALISME An interaction between two animal or plant species that habitually live together in which one species (the commensal) benefits from the association while the other is not significantly affected. However, any close association likely affects both species, even if only slightly E.g.: The relationship between a host tree and its epiphytes attached to the host’s branches.PowerPoint Presentation: Commensalism Spanish moss ( Tillandsia usneoides )PowerPoint Presentation: Spanish moss attached to the host’s branches.PowerPoint Presentation: Eg.: The relationship between the remora fish and the shark. Remora & sharkPowerPoint Presentation: Mutualism An interaction between two animal or plant species that habitually live together in which both species get benefit form their interactionPowerPoint Presentation: Example: Hermit crab, Calcinus laevimanus , with sea anemone . -Sea anemone provide protection to the hermit crab, while it benefits by obtaining food from food particles caught by the crab.PowerPoint Presentation: Example: Honey bees help in cross pollination while it get benefit by sucking nectar from flowers.PowerPoint Presentation: 50 PARASITISM Parasitism is an association in which one organism (the parasite) lives on or in the body of another (the host). Parasite obtains its nutrients and get the benefit from the host, while host is adversely affected Endoparasites live within the host tissues or body cavities Ectoparasites attach to or briefly feed on the external surface of the host The parasite is physiologically or metabolically dependent upon its host. Heavily infected hosts will be killed by their parasites.PowerPoint Presentation: 51 Example of endoparasite: Acarine Mites in Honeybee trachea.PowerPoint Presentation: 52 Parasitism Microscopic tracheal mites ( Acarapis woodi ) 100 µmPowerPoint Presentation: 53 Example of endoparasite : Plasmodium the malaria parasite Tapeworm in brain NematodaPowerPoint Presentation: Example of endoparasite : The tapeworm Taenia sp. parasitic in various mammalsInteraction between biotic and abiotic components.: Interaction between biotic and abiotic components. Abiotic factors play an important role in limiting: Types of organism that is able to survive. Distribution of population of an organism. Size of population of an organism.PowerPoint Presentation: Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic Components The basic dependence of biotic life on the abiotic environment is the need for solar energy - photosynthesis. Climate is widely considered a major determinant of life patterns on planet earth. Changes or perturbations in the abiotic environment can alter the conditions of organism existence. E.g. flood, earthquake, etc. Organisms also change the abiotic environment. - Human activities are resulting in changes in the earth's abiotic environments, including changes in global cycles.PowerPoint Presentation: 57 Lecture 2PowerPoint Presentation: OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: Describe the following ecosystem structures: -Lake ecosystem -Terrestrial ecosystem of tropical rainforestPowerPoint Presentation: 59 A lake ecosystem A terrestrial ecosystem A SIMPLE ECOSYSTEM STRUCTUREDiscuss a lake ecosystem structure –PSPM 08/09: 60 Discuss a lake ecosystem structure –PSPM 08/09 Based on temperature , lakes are stratified into three separate layers - Epilimnion/hyperlimnion – characterised by warmer water - Metalimnion/thermocline – a region where a decline in temperature occurs - Hypolimnion – the water is colder Based on light penetration Photic zone: light penetration sufficient for photosynthesis Photic zone is divided into two subzone: Limnetic zone: well lit open surface waters farther from the shore, become habitat of plankton and fishes Littoral zone: well lit shallow waters close to the shore, where aquatic plants are dominant Aphotic zone/ profundal zone: insufficient light for photosynthesis, waters below the level of light penetration Benthic zone: the sediments at the soil – dominated by bacteria and fungi, where plants material either decay or sink to the bottom and accumulates Pelagic: limnetic and profundal zonesAquatic ecosystem - A lake: 61 Aquatic ecosystem - A lake A lake is a body of standing fresh water (lentic = still water) produced by geologic processes, as when an advancing glacier carves out the land beneath it. Abiotic factors in the lake ecosystem are sum of light, type of substrate and nutrientSUM OF LIGHT: 62 SUM OF LIGHT Sum of light - How much sunlight can penetrates through the water. Factor sum of light depends on a) Duration of light b) Present of particle in water c) Present of particle in air and cloud Sum of light can make phenomena which is importance : a) Compensation point b) Lake zonation c) Thermal layeringPowerPoint Presentation: Pelagic zone Lake Zonation : classified as vertically (based on the densities of lake water due to variation of temperature to depth) or horizontally (based on sunlight penetration and growth of vegetation)PowerPoint Presentation: Pelagic zone Lake Zonation : the lake environment is generally classified on the basis of three physical criteriaPowerPoint Presentation: Pelagic zone Light penetration ( photic and aphotic ) Photic zone: light penetration sufficient for photosynthesis – divided into two subzone: littoral and limnetic Aphotic zone: insufficient light for photosynthesis / light does not penetrate – such as profundal zonePowerPoint Presentation: Pelagic zone 2) Distance from the shore and water depth (littoral and limnetic zones) – both are photic zonePowerPoint Presentation: Pelagic zone Whether it is open water (pelagic) or bottom (benthic; refers to bottom areas made up of sand and organic & inorganic sediments ) zonePowerPoint Presentation: LAKE ZONATION Lakes contain two distinct zones, PELAGIC ZONE LITTORAL ZONE Pelagic zone The open water portion of a lake. Based on their different ecological characteristics (which is roughly a function of depth), the pelagic zone is divided into 1. Limnetic zone 2. Profundal zonePowerPoint Presentation: Pelagic zonePowerPoint Presentation: Limnetic Zone Open surface water zone to a depth of effective light penetration (and farther from the shore; father from the littoral zone) The amount of light decreases until a depth is reached where the rate of photosynthesis becomes equal to the rate of respiration. This is the layer of open water where photosynthesis can occur. Pelagic zonePowerPoint Presentation: Life in the limnetic zone is dominated by : Floating microorganisms - called plankton Phytoplankton (e.g. green algae), Zooplankton (e.g. rotifer) Actively swimming animals – insect and fishPowerPoint Presentation: Profundal zone (absent in shallow lake, because the light can penetrate into the bottom in the shallow lake) Profundal zone - bottom and deep water area, beyond the depth of effective light penetration. Light levels are too low and insufficient for photosynthesis aphotic zone Respiration occurs at all depths so the profundal zone is a region of oxygen consumption. Detritus sinks through this zone to bottom sediments. Communities of diverse bacterial decomposers live in and on bottom sediments (benthic zone), and they enrich the water with nutrients. Energy source from dead organic matter/ detritus/dead organism that drift down from littoral and limnetic zone 73 Pelagic zonePowerPoint Presentation: COMPENSATION POINT Point of balance between respiration and photosynthesis, as determined by intensity of light at a given temperature. The amount of oxygen being produced by photosynthesis will just balance the amount being used by respiration. Limit of effective light penetration. Limit of sea or lake depth below which plants lose more by respiration than they gain by photosynthesis.PowerPoint Presentation: For aquatic plants, the compensation point is the depth of water at which there is just enough light to sustain life (deeper water; less light; less photosynthesis).PowerPoint Presentation: Littoral Littoral Limnetic Compensation point Profundal LAKE ZONATIONPowerPoint Presentation: - The littoral extend all shallow waters close to the shore to depth at which rooted aquatic plants stop growing. - The shallow water region with light penetration to the bottom - Occupied by rooted aquatic plants. - Diversity is greatest here. - The consumers include tiny crustaceans, flatworms, insect larvae, snails, frogs, fish, and turtles. 77 Littoral zonePowerPoint Presentation: In marine ecosystem , littoral zone is divided into : 1. Infralittoral zone 2. Eulittoral zone Infralittoral zone The zone which is always filled with water ( flooded zone ). Eulittoral zone Temporarily flooded zone. Occurs along the protected shores where mud banks with high organic content occur. 78PowerPoint Presentation: Eulittoral Infralittoral Pelagic zonePowerPoint Presentation: Based on its habitat, organism in a lake ecosystem is divided into : Neuston - Organisms that colonizes the surface of an aquatic habitat. 80 Nekton - Aquatic animals that can moved actively (pelagic zone). - Nekton are larger swimmers. - Example : fish, turtlePowerPoint Presentation: c) Plankton - The word plankton means, “that which drifts”. - Live in a water surface to a depth of compensation point (limnetic zone). - Divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals). - Much of plankton is small, passive and are not moving. - Directly comprise the staple diet of the lake’s very largest inhabitants. 81PowerPoint Presentation: d) Aquatic Green plant - as a primary producer - live around the shore e) Benthos - Refers to the organisms in bottom of the lake (in benthic area; benthic zone refers to bottom areas made up of sand and organic & inorganic sediments) - Due to their biological activity, little oxygen is present, and most respiration is, therefore, anaerobic. - Example : often rich in detritus feeders and decomposers, nematode, crustacean, protozoa and bacteria. - A major source of food for most benthos is dead organic matter (detritus) 82 nematode crustaceanPowerPoint Presentation: 83 Lake zonation Compensation point Pelagic zone r McGraw-HillPowerPoint Presentation: Thermal layering (only for temperate lake) 84 In temperate regions where summers are warm and winters cold, lake show seasonal changes in density and temperature from the surface to the bottom. Water is at its heaviest (most dense) when cooled to 4°C (39.2°F), it tends to form a bottom layer. If the surface water becomes colder than 4°C, it becomes lighter and less dense and remains at the top where it freezes. This blanket of ice prevents the water below from radiating its heat. This is the reason that few ponds freeze to the bottom. summer Fall turnover winter Spring turnoverPowerPoint Presentation: Based on temperature that affects thermal stratification, three layers formed in a lake; The epilimnion or photic zone Epilimnion – upper warmer circulating water. The upper layer where light is sufficient for photosynthesis. Thermocline or metalimnion A narrow vertical zone between the warmer and colder waters where a rapid temperature decrease occurs. Hypolimnion or aphotic zone Hypolimnion – the colder and deeper layer, non-circulating water. The lower layer that receives less light and no photosynthesis occurs. 85PowerPoint Presentation: 86 epilimnion thermocline hypolimnion THERMAL LAYERRING AT A TEMPERATE LAKEPowerPoint Presentation: A Terrestrial Ecosystem Example of a terrestrial ecosystem is a tropical rain forest. A terrestrial ecosystem is more complex compared to a lake ecosystem. Biologically it have a complex stratification that’s simply refers to the different layers of plants in a forest. Each layer has a unique set of environmental conditions and organisms adapted to them.PowerPoint Presentation: Example : Tropical rain forest A terrestrial ecosystem have a complex biotic community. Tropical rainforests around the world are quite diverse, even they share same climate, precipitation, canopy structure, complex symbiotic relationships and the diversity of species Lie in the tropical region, the consistent sunlight provides essential energy for photosynthesis Usually warm the whole year around Receive heavy rainfall A Terrestrial EcosystemPowerPoint Presentation: Physical Variation of a Terrestrial EcosystemPowerPoint Presentation: 90 Emergent strata Canopy strata Shrub strata Herb strata Thalloid strata Tropical Rainforest Stratification Understory strataPowerPoint Presentation: herb strata thalloid strataPowerPoint Presentation: Emergent Layer Widely spaced trees 100 to 120 feet tall/ 50 m and with umbrella-shaped canopies extend above the general canopy of the forest. Some trees grow especially tall and it can actually grow through the canopy. Giant trees that grow through the canopy are called emergent. Emergent are directly absorb the sunlight Since they must contend with drying winds , they tend to have small leaves and some species are deciduous during the brief dry season. Animals such as eagle and monkey are living herePowerPoint Presentation: Canopy (Upper) Layer This layer is mainly comprised of a closed canopy of 80 foot-high trees. Light is readily available at the top of this layer , but greatly reduced below it. The canopy is the highest vegetative layer in the forest . It is filled by leaves deployed from large mature trees. The canopy is the primary site of energy fixation . It influences the amount of sunlight that penetrates deeper into the forest. Typically less than 50% of the total amount of sunlight can pass through the canopy to plants in the forest layers below. Over 50% of the rainforest wildlife (monkey, insect, snakes, birds, lianas, orchids live herePowerPoint Presentation: Understory (Lower) Layer Typically includes smaller trees . These must be shade-tolerant since they're growing under the canopy trees. There is little air movement in this zone and consequently humidity is constantly high. Many animals live here including insects Divided into sublayer shrub and herbPowerPoint Presentation: Shrub Layer Mature Shrubs and Bushes. Shrub layer vegetation is an abundance of food for animals. Less than 3% of the light intercepted at the top of the forest canopy passes to this layer.PowerPoint Presentation: Herb / Fern Layer Herbs, Ferns, Grasses and Weeds. Is considered the lowest forest layer with leafy living vegetation. The types of plants in the herb layer vary depending on the soil humidity and the deepness of shade in an ecosystem. Most of the plants in the herb / fern layer have short life cycles.PowerPoint Presentation: Forest Floor/Thalloid/Litter Layer Decaying plant and animal matter, fungi, mosses. Less than 1% of the light that strikes the top of the forest penetrates to the forest floor. The litter layer is the repository of all of the dead matter in the forest. Here a host of bacteria, fungi, worms, insects and other waste consumers break down the rubbish to create new nutrient-rich soil.PowerPoint Presentation: The nutrients are then extracted from the soil by the plants in the forest. This recycling of matters creates an on-going balanced cycle that ensures the long term sustainability of the forest.PowerPoint Presentation: Emergent Strata Canopy Strata Shrub Strata Herb Strata Thalloid Strata FOREST STRATIFICATION OF COMMUNITY (occurs only in tropical rain forest)PowerPoint Presentation: Strata Type of tree Animal of community Emergent Tualang tree Eagle Canopy and Understory Nephelium sp . (Pokok pinang) Beetle Insects Birds Shrub Hibiscus rosa- sinensis Honey bee Herb Dryopteris (Fern) Reptile, mammalian, invertebrate Thalloid Bryophyta Ant, invertebrate, mammalianPowerPoint Presentation: 101 The Emergent Layer has trees that break through the Rain Forest canopy. This area is full of birds and gets more sun. You can see the mist and clouds below the treetops. The dense trees form an "umbrella" over the forest below. The Understory is dense with plants and animal life. You can see that it is much darker in this lower part of the rain forest layers. The Forest Floor is dark and damp, and many insects and animals live here. Scientists have discovered that the richness of the rain forest lies in the plant matter, not in the soil itself. The decomposition of plants and animals by mushrooms, lichens, moss, fungi and bacteria in a rain forest provide rich nutrients and energy for other living things.PowerPoint Presentation: 102 EMERGENT LAYER The tallest trees are the emergents, towering as much as 200 feet above the forest floor with trunks that measure up to 16 feet around. Most of these trees are broad-leaved, hardwood evergreens. Sunlight is plentiful up here. Animals found are eagles, monkeys, bats and butterflies. CANOPY LAYER This is the primary layer of the forest and forms a roof over the two remaining layers. Most canopy trees have smooth, oval leaves that come to a point. It's a maze of leaves and branches. Many animals live in this area since food is abundant. Those animals include: snakes, toucans and treefrogs. UNDERSTORY LAYER Little sunshine reaches this area so the plants have to grow larger leaves to reach the sunlight. The plants in this area seldom grow to 12 feet. Many animals live here including jaguars, red-eyed tree frogs and leopards. There is a large concentration of insects here. FOREST FLOOR It's very dark down here. Almost no plants grow in this area, as a result. Since hardly any sun reaches the forest floor things begin to decay quickly. A leaf that might take one year to decompose in a regular climate will disappear in 6 weeks. Giant anteaters live in this layer. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.