Design & Installation Guide for PVC Fittings

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This document has been developed by the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association for design and installation of PVC fittings where solid-wall PVC pipe is used in non-pressure applications.The guide provides information on the wide range of fittings that are available for various dimension ratios and outside diameters of PVC pipe through 60-inch.Also included is information on installation practices that are intended to optimize the performance of PVC fittings.

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DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE FOR PVC FITTINGS LATERALS FOR SOLID WALL PVC SEWER PIPE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introducton 2 Products 3 Main-Line Fitngs Service-Line Fitngs 3-4 Connectons to Dissimilar Materials 5 Optons 5 Design 6 Burial Depth 6 Soil Compacton 7 Accommodatng Pipe Movement 8 Other Consideratons 9 Installaton 10 Installaton Recommendatons 11 Member Company Fitng Manufacturers 12 DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 2 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS INTRODUCTION: This document has been developed by the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Associaton for design and installaton of PVC ftngs where solid-wall PVC pipe is used in non-pressure applicatons. The guide provides informaton on the wide range of ftngs that are available for various dimension ratos and outside diameters of PVC pipe through 60-inch. Also included is informaton on installaton practces that are intended to optmize the performance of PVC ftngs. Standards Product standards used in this guide include: • ASTM D3034 “Standard Specifcaton for Type PSM Polyvinyl Chloride PVC Sewer Pipe and Fitngs” • ASTM D3212 “Standard Specifcaton for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastc Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals” • ASTM F679 “Standard Specifcaton for Polyvinyl Chloride PVC Large-Diameter Plastc Gravity Sewer Pipe and Fitngs” • ASTM F1336 “Standard Specifcaton for Polyvinyl Chloride PVC Gasketed Sewer Fitngs” • CSA B182.2 “PSM Type Polyvinyl Chloride PVC Sewer Pipe and Fitngs” Installaton standards used in this guide include: • ASTM D2321 “ Standard Practce for Underground Installaton of Thermoplastc Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applicatons” • CSA B182.11 “Standard Practce for the Installaton of Thermoplastc Drain Storm and Sewer Pipe and Fitngs” Specifcatons • PVC sewer pipe shall conform to ASTM D3034 3-inch through 15-inch ASTM F679 18-inch through 60-inch or CSA B182.2 4-inch through 60-inch. • PVC ftngs shall conform to ASTM 3034 ASTM F1336 or CSA B182.2. • PVC bell-and-spigot push-on type joints shall be gasketed conforming to ASTM D3212. • All PVC sewer pipe and ftngs shall be installed in accordance with ASTM D2321 or CSA B182.11. DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 2 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS PRODUCTS: MAIN-LINE SERVICE-LINE FITTINGS Fitngs commonly used in the sewer main line are bends couplings adaptors tees wyes and tee-wyes. Bends: The most common ftngs found in service lines are bends which are used to accommodate changes in directon. Bends of various angles are available. Bends can be fabricated to meet a wide variety of design requirements. Couplings: A full range of PVC couplings are available to connect pipe. Repair couplings: PVC gasketed repair couplings are available where cut-in of a service ftng is required. Reducer couplings: Adaptors that connect diferent diameters of pipe. Transiton couplings: Adaptors to connect diferent OD-types of PVC pipe are available in both spigot-end and gasketed bell. In the example shown an 8-inch PVC PSM spigot 8.400-inch OD is connected to an 8- inch PVC IPS OD spigot 8.625-inch OD. A wide assortment of ftngs are available Bends Reducer couplings Transiton coupling DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 3 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 4 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS PRODUCTS: MAIN-LINE SERVICE-LINE FITTINGS CONT. Fitngs with service-line branches: Main-line ftngs with service-line branches are available in tee wye or tee-wye confguratons. Tapping saddles: PVC tapping saddles are available in tee and wye confguratons. Saddles may be used when a service line is added to an existng system. Afer a hole is cut in the main line the PVC saddle is atached with stainless steel bands. Saddles are not recommended where an air test is required. Service-line branches Saddles DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 3 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 4 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS PRODUCTS: CONNECTING TO DISSIMILAR MATERIALS A new PVC line main line or a service line will sometmes be connected to an existng line of a diferent mate - rial. In these cases it is not uncommon to see a fexible coupling used to make the connecton. The existng line will probably not experience any additonal setlement but the new line laid on disturbed soil may un - dergo setlement. PVC sleeves or stainless steel bands on the fexible coupling will aid in preventng an ofset between the two pipes. PRODUCTS: OPTIONS Both injecton-molding and fabricaton processes are used to produce non-pressure PVC ftngs. Fabricaton gives the ability to manufacture an unlimited variety of ftngs to meet design requirements such as: • Special dimensional requirements e.g. lay length • Heavy-walled branches • Fitngs with connectons that accommodate diferent PVC pipe diameter types Sleeve Stainless steel bend Custom fabricaton DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 5 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 6 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS DESIGN: BURIAL DEPTH The critcal design consideraton for ftngs is stress not depth of bury. Excessive stress can be created at any depth including shallow-bury installatons. Defnitons • Lateral: Pipe running from sewer main to property line connecton • Riser or stack: A steep-sloped lateral A riser pipe can place extreme loads on ftngs if a drag down or push-down scenario occurs. Using the correct ftngs and installaton practces allows for minimal loads to be placed on ftngs at depths in excess of 30 feet. Typical connectons Deep burial connecton DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 5 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 6 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS DESIGN: SOIL COMPACTION Adequate soil compacton around riser pipe is required so that the pipe does not move downward. Pipe laid in either vertcal or horizontal orientaton can create stresses on ftngs when the pipe is allowed to move. Any setlement of material alongside the riser produces a “drag-down” load due to the frictonal forces at the pipe-soil interface. Setlement of the lateral ftng assembly produces a similar drag-down load. These loads must be mitgated or transferred harmlessly of the stack to prevent problems such as joint over-inserton spearing punch through ftng fracture and defecton or misalignment of the sewer main. Forces on risers and lateral Defecton of main-line Punch through or spearing DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 7 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 8 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS DESIGN: ACCOMMODATING PIPE MOVEMENT There are two strategies used to accommodate diferental setlement: 1. Resist movement – use a stronger ftng to resist stresses – this has the disadvantage of moving the loads elsewhere rather than solving the problem 2. Allow movement – prevent stresses from occurring Spigot-by-spigot adaptor: For steeper portons of risers nipples are used to provide bell-to-bell contact. This contact prevents over-inserton of the spigot into the bell. Deep-socket ftngs controlled-setlement joints: These ftngs accommodate downward movement of a vertcal riser pipe. The objectve is to prevent the riser pipe from making contact with the socket botom. Extra travel is also provided by standard-depth ftngs if the inserton depth recommendatons of the ftngs manufacturer are followed. Spigot by spigot adaptors Deep-socket ftng DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 7 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 8 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS DESIGN: OTHER CONSIDERATIONS • Pipes with lower DRs are thicker-walled and provide increased pipe-stfness values. • When it is necessary to install a vertcal riser engineering design is required to accommodate the antcipated movement of the riser pipe. • It is recommended that a tee wye or tee-wye ftng not be installed vertcally without engineering design since it is difcult to provide proper support for the ftng branch. • Compacton is critcal beneath the main-line sewer ftngs and any horizontal porton of lateral to minimize or eliminate setlement and the resultng loading. • In general service laterals should be at an angle of no greater than 45 degrees from the horizontal. This will minimize downward loads on the service connecton caused by side-soil fricton. • Other optons such as heavy-walled ftngs solvent-cement ftngs concrete encasement and fowable fll can be used if site conditons make it impractcal to achieve adequate compacton of the backfll materials. Lateral connecton DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 9 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 10 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS INSTALLATION • All connectons between pipe and ftngs should be made in straight alignment. o Bending of the riser pipe for grade or angle adjustment should not take place. o Service laterals and ftngs should be installed without angular joint defectons. • Local specifcatons may require the PVC service line to be a diferent OD type from the main line. It is not unusual to have PVC service lines with IPS Iron Pipe Size dimensions coming of a PVC main that has PSM Plastc Sewer Main dimensions. • Transitons from horizontal to vertcal should be smooth and well-supported. This may be accomplished with ftng combinatons gradual bends and/or trench geometry. 45 degree bend results in 18 degree ofset 45 degree bend in straight alignment DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 9 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 10 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS • Understand the soil conditons and installaton practces. Heavy-walled PVC ftngs may be required when working in unstable soil conditons. • When rotatng a main-line ftng use the bell on the body for leverage. Do not place a pipe or bar into the service line for this purpose as this could cause damage to the ftng. • Use a single length of pipe for the riser secton whenever possible. • Field cut pipe clean and square. A beveled square cut engages the entre circumference of the bell while an uneven cut results in stress concentratons due to point loading. • Follow the ftng manufacturer’s recommended inserton depth. The pipe manufacturer’s inserton mark may difer from that for a ftng. • Where natve material is stable lay the service on undisturbed natve soil. • Where possible install vertcal risers along the trench wall with adequate support provided at the transton to horizontal. • Compact embedment material in lifs to provide a proper transiton between the undisturbed natve material and the riser. • Hand place a minimum 6-inch layer of inital material over the top of a riser laid on undisturbed soil to provide protecton to the risers during fnal backfll. Where risers are laid on disturbed soil additonal thickness of protectve material may be required. • Prevent heavy equipment from driving over riser systems and cleanouts as this could push the soils and riser system downward. DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 11 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 12 I PAGE

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PVC SEWER FITTINGS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT A UNI-BELL MEMBER COMPANY FITTING MANUFACTURER: htp://www.galaxyplastcs.com/ htp://www.ipexna.com/ htp://www.gpk-fargo.com/ htp://www.royalbuildingproducts.com/ htp://www.tgre.com/usa/web/index.p htp://www.harcoftngs.com/ DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 11 I PAGE DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE: LATERALS AND CONNECTIONS FOR SOLID WALL PVC PIPE 12 I PAGE

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UNI-BELL PVC PIPE ASSOCIATION 2711 LBJ Freeway Suite 1000 Dallas TX 75234 972 243-3902 WWW.UNI-BELL.ORG 01.21.16 UNI-PUB 12-15

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