Plant Anatomy & Physiology

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Plant Anatomy & Physiology Umesh Kumar Msc. Biotechnology Umeshsharma167@gmail.com

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The Four Basic Parts of Plants Leaves Stems Roots Flowers

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Leaves Functions Make food through photosynthesis Site of gas exchange Respiration Photosynthesis Store food

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Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) Cuticle Waxy substance that covers the leaves & stems Waterproof layer that keeps water in plants

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Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) Stomata Openings in the epidermis mainly located on the underside of leaves Exchange of gases

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Tissues of the Leaf (Epidermis) Guard Cells Two cells located on each side of stomata Open and closes stomata

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Tissues of the Leaf (Mesophyll Layer ) Palisade Mesophyll Primary site of photosynthesis Spongy mesophyll Contains air & chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis and gas exchange

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Tissues of the Leaf Vascular Bundles Called veins In spongy Mesophyll Phloem moves food from leaf to the rest of the plant Xylem moves water & minerals up to leaves from roots

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Tissues of the Leaf

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External Parts of the Leaf Petiole Leaf stalk or part that connects the leaf to the stem. Blade The large, flat part of a leaf. Midrib The large center vein.

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External Parts of the Leaf

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Leaf Forms

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Leaf Margins

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Leaf Tips

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Leaf Bases

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Leaf Arrangements (Simple)

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Leaf Arrangements (Compound)

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Leaf Crops

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Stems Functions Movement of materials Water & minerals from roots to leaves Manufactured food from leaves to roots Support leaves & reproductive structures Food storage

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External Stem Structure Lenticels Breathing pores. Bud Scale Scars Show where terminal buds have been located. Leaf Scars Show where leaves were attached.

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External Stem Structure Terminal Bud Bud on the end of the stem. Axillary Lateral Bud Bud on the side of the stem.

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External Stem Structure

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Internal Stem Structure Xylem The tissue that transports water & nutrients up from roots to stems & leaves. Phloem Tissue that transports food down from leaves to roots. Cambium Thin, green, actively growing tissue located between bark & wood and produces all new stems cells.

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Internal Stem Structure Bark Old, inactive phloem. Heartwood Old, inactive xylem. Sapwood New, active xylem.

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Internal Stem Structure (Monocots) Vascular bundles contain both xylem & phloem. Examples: Grasses Corn

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Monocot Stems (Vascular Bundle)

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Internal Stem Structure (Dicots) Plant stems have xylem & phloem separated by the cambium. Example: Trees

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Internal Stem Structure (Dicots)

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Specialized Types of Stems Corm Underground Solid, fleshy, scale covered Examples Gladiolus Crocus

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Specialized Types of Stems Bulb Layers of fleshy scales that overlap each other Underground stem Examples Tulips Lilies Onions

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Specialized Types of Stems Tubers Food Storage Area Short, thick underground stem Examples Potato Caladium

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Specialized Types of Stems Crown Closely grouped stems or plantlets Just above or below ground Examples African violet Ferns

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Specialized Types of Stems Spurs Short stems found on woody limbs adapted for increased fruit production Examples Apple Pear

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Specialized Types of Stems Rhizomes Underground stems that produce roots on the lower surface and extend leaves and flower shoots above ground Examples Iris Lily of the Valley

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Specialized Types of Stems Stolens Stem that grows horizontally above the soil surface Examples Strawberries Airplane Plant

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Stem Crops

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Roots Functions : Anchor the plant Absorb water & minerals Store food Propagate or reproduce some plants

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Different Types of Roots Tap Root One main root, no nodes Continuation of the primary root Ideal for anchorage Penetration is greater for water Storage area for food

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Different Types of Roots Fibrous Root Many finely branched secondary roots Shallow roots cover a large area More efficient absorption of water & minerals Roots hold the soil to prevent erosion

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Different Types of Roots Aerial Roots Clinging air roots Short roots that grow horizontally from the stems Roots that fasten the plant to a support Absorptive air roots Absorb moisture from the air

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Different Types of Roots Adventitious Roots Develop in places other than nodes Form on cuttings & rhizomes

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External Parts of Roots Root Cap Indicates growth of new cells.

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External Parts of Roots Root Hairs Tiny one celled hair-like extensions of the epidermal cells located near the tips of roots. Increase surface area. Absorb water & minerals.

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Internal Parts of Roots Much like those of stems with phloem, cambium and xylem layers. Phloem The outer layer. Carries food down the plant. Xylem The inner layer. Carries water & minerals up to the stem.

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Root Crops

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