designing training programme

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1 DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMMES BHALE ULHAS( Bsc.MBA.DLL )

Introduction:

Introduction 2 Why Training is Important?

High Leverage Training Strategy: A systematic Approach:

High Leverage Training Strategy: A systematic Approach 3 Training A planned effort to facilitate the learning of job related knowledge, skills, and behavior by employee High Leverage Training Training Practice that links training to strategic business goals, has top management support, relay on an instructional design models, and is benchmarked to programs in other organizations

High Leverage Training Strategy: A systematic Approach:

High Leverage Training Strategy: A systematic Approach 4 Continuous Learning A learning system that requires employees to understand the entire work process and expects them to acquire new skills, apply them on the job, and share what they have learned with other employees

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 5 1- Needs Assessment 2- Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for Training 3- Creating A Learning Environment 4- Ensuring Transfer of Training 5- Selecting Training Methods 5- Evaluating Training Programs Training Design Process A systematic approach for developing training programs

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 6 Needs Identification and Assessment Training Needs Identification: The process used to determine training gap Job Requirements Employee Capabilities Training Gap Training Needs Analysis / Assessment: The process used to determine if training is necessary

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 7 Needs Identification and Assessment Levels of Training Needs Identification Level 1 Organizational Analysis Level 2 Task / Job Analysis Level 3 Person / Employee Analysis

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 8 Needs Identification and Assessment Levels of Training Needs Identification Level 1 Organizational Analysis Support of Managers and Peers Companies’ Strategic Directions (strategic training and development initiative) Companies’ Strategic Directions

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 9 Needs Identification and Assessment Levels of Training Needs Identification Level 2 Task Analysis – Steps of Task Analysis: Select jobs to be analyzed Develop a preliminary list of tasks Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks Identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 10 Needs Identification and Assessment Levels of Training Needs Identification Level 3 Person Analysis - Factors Influence Employees’ Performance and Learning: Person Characteristics Input Output Consequences Feedback

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 11 Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for Training Motivation to Learn The desire of the trainee to learn the content of a training program Self Efficacy The employees’ belief that they can successfully learn the content of a training program

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 12 Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for Training Understanding the Benefits or Consequences of Training Awareness of Training Needs, Career Interests, and Goals Work Environment Characteristics Basic Skills

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 13 Creating A Learning Environment Learning environment facilitate acquiring knowledge and skills in the training program Conditions for Learning Need to know why they should learn Opportunities for practice Observe experience, and interact with others Commit training content to memory Meaningful training content feedback Good program coordination and administration

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 14 Creating A Learning Environment Groups of employees who work together, learn from each other, and develop a common understanding of how to get work accomplished Communities of Practice

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 15 Ensuring Transfer of Training The use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training on the job Transfer of Training

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 16 Ensuring Transfer of Training Trainees’ perception of characteristics of the work environment (social support and situational constraints) that can either facilitate or inhabit use of trained skills or behavior Transfer of Training Requirements Climate for Transfer The degree to which trainees’ managers emphasize the importance of attending training programs and stress the application of training content to the job. Action plans Managers Support Trainees who meet to discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job Peer Support (support network)

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 17 Ensuring Transfer of Training Trainee is provided with or actively seeks experience using newly learned knowledge, skills, or behavior Transfer of Training Requirements Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities (opportunity to perform) Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) & Knowledge Management Systems Technological Support Computer applications that can provide (as requested) skills training, information access, and expert advice Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Process of enhancing company performance by designing and using tools, systems, and cultures to improve creation, sharing and use of knowledge Knowledge Management Systems

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 18 Ensuring Transfer of Training Employees ability to self manage their use of new skills and behaviors on the job Transfer of Training Requirements Self Management Skills

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 19 Selecting Training Methods Training methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information Presentation Methods Trainer lecturing a group Instructor – Led Classroom Instruction Used by geographically dispersed companies Distance Learning Synchronous exchange of audio, video, or text between individuals or groups at two or more locations Teleconferencing Classroom instruction provided online via live broadcasts Webcasting

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 20 Selecting Training Methods Training methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information Presentation Methods Includes overheads, slides, and video Audiovisual Techniques Includes iPods and PDAs Mobile Technologies

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 21 Selecting Training Methods Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning Hands-on Methods Peers or managers training new or inexperienced employees who learn the job by observation, understanding, and imitation On-the-job Training A program in which employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning Self Directed Learning A work study method with both on the job and classroom training Apprenticeship A training method that represents a real life situation, allowing trainees to see the outcomes of their decisions in artificial environment Simulation

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 22 Selecting Training Methods Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning Hands-on Methods Using role playing to enforce certain models of behavior Behavior Modeling Combines the advantages of video and computer based instructions Interactive video Computer description of humans that can be used as imaginary coaches, co-workers, and customers in simulations Avatars Computer based technology that provides trainees with a three dimensional learning experience Virtual Reality

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 23 Selecting Training Methods Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning Hands-on Methods Instruction and delivery of training by computers through the internet or company intranet E-Learning Technology platform that automates the administration, development, and delivery of a company’s training program Learning Management System Directly translating instructor led training online Repurposing Ability of trainees to actively learn through self pacing exercises, links to other materials, and conversation with other trainees and experts Learner Control

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 24 Selecting Training Methods Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning Hands-on Methods Training techniques that help trainees share ideas and experiences, build group identity, understand the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, and get to know their own strength and weaknesses and those of their co-workers Group or Team building Methods Learning focused on the development teamwork and leadership skills by using structured outdoor activities Adventure Learning

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 25 Selecting Training Methods Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning Hands-on Methods A training method that represents a real life situation, allowing trainees to see the outcomes of their decisions in artificial environment Team Training Team members understand and practice each other’s skills Cross Training Trains the team in how to share information and decisions Coordination Training Training the team manager or facilitator Team leader Training

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 26 Selecting Training Methods Training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning Hands-on Methods Teams work on an actual business problem, commit to an action plan, and are accountable for carrying out the plan Action Learning An action training program that provides employees with defect reducing tools to cut costs and certifies employees as green belts, champions, or black belts Six Sigma Training

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 27 Which Training Method to Select? Type of learning outcome Transfer of training effectiveness Time needed Number of trainees Cost

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 28 Evaluating Training Programs A way to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program based on cognitive, skills based, affective, and results outcomes Training Outcomes Strengths &Weaknesses – Design contribution to learning – Trainees benefited – Level of satisfaction – Financial benefits & costs – ROI – Cost comparison with other programs Reasons for Evaluating Training

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 29 Evaluating Training Programs Evaluation Design Pretest/Posttest with Comparison Group Posttest only with comparison Group Pretest / Posttest Posttest Only Time Series

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 30 Evaluating Training Programs Determining Return on Investment the process of determining the economic benefits of a training program using accounting methods Cost Benefit Analysis Determining Costs Determining Benefits Making the Analysis

Designing Effective Training Activities:

Designing Effective Training Activities 31 Evaluating Training Programs Training Effects to be Measured 1- Reaction 2- Learning 3- Behavior 4- Results Effectiveness Cost Effectiveness

Selection Methods Standards:

Selection Methods Standards 32 Validity The extant to which a performance measure all the relevant –and only the relevant- aspects of job performance Criterion Related Validation Content Validation

Selection Methods Standards:

Selection Methods Standards 33 Validity Criterion Related Validation Predictive Validation Concurrent Validation A method of establishing the validity of a personnel selection method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores Acieration related validity study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between applicants’ test scores and their eventual performance on the job Acieration related validity study in which a test is administered to all the people currently in a job and then incumbents’ scores are correlated with existing measures of their performance on the job

Selection Methods Standards:

Selection Methods Standards 34 Validity Content Validation A test validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed y a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job

Selection Methods Standards:

Selection Methods Standards 35 Generalization The degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contents Utility The degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel in real organization

Selection Methods Standards:

Selection Methods Standards 36 Legality The degree to which the selection methods confirm to existing laws and legal precedents

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 37 Interviews A dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the qualifications of an applicant for employment Advantages Disadvantages Situational Interview

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 38 References, Biographical Data, and Applications Blanks Advantages Disadvantages

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 39 Physical Ability Tests Advantages Disadvantages

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 40 Cognitive Ability Tests Verbal Comprehension Advantages Disadvantages Quantitative Ability Reasoning Ability

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 41 Personality Inventories Advantages Disadvantages

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 42 Work Samples Advantages Disadvantages

Types of Selection Methods:

Types of Selection Methods 43 Honesty Tests and Drug Tests Advantages Disadvantages

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