Eriksons_theory

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Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development:

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development Ugur Ger 22.10.2012 Sarajevo-BIH “ Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a child for his symptom ” Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson:

Erik Erikson Born in Germany on June 15 th 1902. He was an artist and a teacher in the late 1920s when he met Anna Freud, an Austrian psychoanalyst. With Anna’s encouragement, he began to study child psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. He immigrated to the US in 1933 and taught at Yale and Harvard University. It was at this point in his life that he became interested in the influence of society and culture on child development. To satisfy his curiosity, he studied groups of American Indian Children to help formulate his theories. Studying these children enabled him to correlate personality growth with parental and societal values.

Field of Research :

Field of Research He studied groups of Aboriginal children to learn about the influence of society and culture on child development. From this, he developed a number of theories, the most famous being his psychosocial development.

His Theory:

His Theory Ego identity -- the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. Ego Quality/Ego Strength -- If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality . He believed that humans have to resolve different conflicts as they progress through each stage of development in the life cycle.

Erikson’s work is based on five assumptions:

Erikson’s work is based on five assumptions People, in general have the same basic needs Personal development occurs in response to these needs Development proceeds in stages Movement through the stages reflects changes in an individual’s motivation Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge that presents opportunities for development

Stage One Trust vs. Mistrust:

Stage One Trust vs. Mistrust Psychosocial Conflict: Trust vs Mistrust Major Question: "Can I trust the people around me?" Basic Virtue: Hope Important Event(s): Feeding birth to 1 year (infancy) basic conflict is trust vs. mistrust the important event is feeding and the important relationship is with the mother the infant must develop a loving, trusting relationship with the mother/caregiver through feeding, teething and comforting failure to resolve this conflict can lead to sensory distortion, and withdrawal

Stage Two Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt :

Stage Two Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Psychosocial Conflict: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Major Question: "Can I do things myself or am I reliant on the help of others?" Basic Virtue: Will Important Event(s): Toilet Training age 1 to 3 years (toddler) Basic conflict is autonomy vs. shame/doubt The important event is toilet training and the important relationship is with the parents The child’s energy is directed towards mastering physical skills such as walking, grasping and muscular control The child learns self control but may develop shame, doubt, impulsivity or compulsion if not handled well Sample Video

Stage Three Initiative vs. Guilt :

Stage Three Initiative vs. Guilt Psychosocial Conflict: Initiative versus Guilt Major Question: “Am I good or bad?” Basic Virtue: Purpose Important Event(s): Exploration, Play age 3 to 6 years (preschool) basic conflict is initiative vs. guilt the important event is independence and the important relationship is family the child continues to become more assertive in exploration, discovery, adventure and play the child may show too much force in this stage causing feelings of guilt failure to resolve this conflict can lead to ruthlessness and inhibition

Stage Four Industry Versus Inferiority :

Stage Four Industry Versus Inferiority Psychosocial Conflict: Industry versus Inferiority Major Question: "How can I be good?" Basic Virtue: Competence Important Event(s): School age 6 to 12 years (school age) the basic conflict in this stage is industry vs. inferiority the important event is school and the important relationships are teachers, friends and neighbourhood the child must learn to deal with new skills and develop a sense of achievement and accomplishment failure to do so can create a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence

Stage Five Identity Versus Confusion :

Stage Five Identity Versus Confusion Psychosocial Conflict: Identity Versus Confusion Major Question: "Who am I?" Basic Virtue: Fidelity Important Event(s): Social Relationships age 12 to 20 years (adolescent) the basic conflict is identity vs. role confusion the important event is development of peer relationships and the important relationships are peers, groups and social influences The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics and religion. In addition, they must resolve their identity and direction. Failure to make these resolutions can lead to the repression of aspects of the individual for the sake of others (fanaticism)

Stage Six Intimacy Versus Isolation :

Stage Six Intimacy Versus Isolation Psychosocial Conflict: Intimacy Versus Isolation Major Question: "Will I be loved or will I be alone?" Basic Virtue: Love Important Event(s): Romantic Relationships age 20 to 40 years the basic conflict in young adulthood is intimacy vs. isolation the important event is parenting and the important relationships are lovers, friends and work connections in this stage, the individual must develop intimate relationships through work and social life failure to make such connections can lead to loneliness and isolation

Stage Seven Generativity Versus Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) :

Stage Seven Generativity Versus Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) Psychosocial Conflict: Generativity Versus Stagnation Major Question: "How can I contribute to the world?" Basic Virtue: Care Important Event(s): Parenthood and Work age 40 to 65 years the basic conflict is generativity vs. stagnation the important event is parenting and the important relationships are with children and the community this stage is based on the idea that each adult must find a way to satisfy, support and contribute to the next generation; it is often thought of as giving back failure to resolve this stage can lead to overextension or rejectivity

Stage Eight Integrity Versus Despair (maturity) :

Stage Eight Integrity Versus Despair (maturity) Psychosocial Conflict: Integrity versus despair Major Question: "Did I live a meaningful life?" Basic Virtue: Wisdom Important Event(s): Reflecting back on life age 65 to death the basic conflict is ego integrity vs. despair the important event is reflection on and acceptance of the individual’s life the individual is creating meaning and purpose of one’s life and reflecting on life achievements failure to resolve this conflict can create feelings of disdain

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