1984 by George Orwell

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Free Powerpoint Templates 1984 by George Orwell Ugur GER December 13, 2012 Sarajevo

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Outline: About the Author, About 1984. Historical Background. Plot Summary. Characters, Setting, Narrative style. Themes, Motifs & Symbolism. Aim of Orwell. Irony & Imp. quotations explained.

Orwell’s Dystopia :

Orwell’s Dystopia Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a darkly satirical political novel by George Orwell. The story takes place in a nightmarish dystopia, in which an ever- surveillant State enforces perfect conformity among citizens through indoctrination, fear, lies and ruthless punishment. It was first published on June 8, 1949, is Orwell's most famous work, and is the inspiration of the word "Orwellian."

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Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984 ) is a darkly satirical political novel by George Orwell. The story takes place in a nightmarish dystopia, in which an ever- surveillant State enforces perfect conformity among citizens through indoctrination, fear, lies and ruthless punishment. It was first published on June 8, 1949, is Orwell's most famous work, and is the inspiration of the word "Orwellian."

About Orwell:

About Orwell Eric Blair was born in 1903 in Bengal ,a British colony. Distinct during his school days. Joined the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. He resigned with a hatred to imperialism. He adopted his pen name in 1933 Orwell lived for several years in poverty, sometimes homeless. Orwell volunteered to fight for the Republicans against Franco’s Nationalist uprising, and was shot on 1937. Orwell began supporting himself by writing in 1940. Orwell died at the age of 46 from tuberculosis.

Orwell’s Political Views:

Orwell’s Political Views He considered himself a democratic socialist and was critical of communism. He hated intellectuals, lying, cruelty, political authority, and totalitarianism. He strongly opposed Stalin and Hitler – he was very outspoken during WWII.

Literary Significance :

Literary Significance One of the most influential political novels of our century Added vocabulary to our everyday speech Fascinating plot and vivid characters Although the year 1984 has passed, the questions Orwell leaves us with remain relevant today Originally the title was going to be 1948 may be an allusion to the centenary of the Fabian Society, a socialist organization founded in 1884. A vision of the future but also a comment on the present.

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The Plot The plot consists of three main parts: -The first part: deals with the world of 1984 as seen through the eyes of Winston. -The second part: deals with Winston forbidden relationship with Julia and his eagerness to rebel against the party. -The third part: deals with Winston’s capture and torture.

Plot:

Plot Winston Smith, the central character, is a thirty-nine year old man living in London. He secretly hates the Party and decides to rebel by starting a diary in which he reveals his rebellious thoughts. Through keeping a diary, Winston commits thoughtcrime and knows that one day he will be discovered by the Thought Police and probably killed.

Plot:

Plot Winston is fascinated by " proles ," the lowest class in the social hierarchy of Oceania. They are the only group allowed to live pretty much as they like without heavy police surveillance. He befriends Mr. Charrington , the prole owner of a junk-shop, who shares his interest in the past and life before the rule of Big Brother.

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At work, a dark-haired girl who works in another department approaches Winston in the corridor. She pretends to fall and hurt herself; when he helps her up she slips a piece of paper into his hand. It says "I love you." Winston is surprised and disturbed by this; any sexual relationship between Party members is strictly forbidden. Nevertheless, he is intrigued.

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They secretly arrange to meet in the country. He begins a love affair with the girl, who finally introduces herself as Julia. They have to be very cautious and meet in places that aren't watched: a clearing in the woods, an old church. Winston and Julia eventually rent the room above Mr. Charrington's junk-shop as a long-term private place for the two of them.

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A member of the Inner Party, O'Brien, finds an excuse to give Winston his home address, an unusual event. Winston, noticeably excited, has always believed O'Brien may not be politically orthodox and could sympathize with his hatred of the Party. Winston and Julia go to see O'Brien and he enlists them into the Brotherhood, a secret organization dedicated to fighting Big Brother.

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He arranges to give Winston a copy of " The Book ," a document that contains the truth about Big Brother and the development of the super-states. Winston and Julia go to their room above the junk-shop to read the book. The Thought Police burst in to arrest them and they discover that Mr. Charrington is a Thought Police agent. They are taken separately to the Ministry of Love. There, Winston learns that O'Brien is in fact an orthodox government agent and has deliberately tricked him.

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. O'Brien takes charge of the process of "re-integrating" Winston, torturing and brainwashing him until he fully believes in the Party and its doctrines. As the final step of this process, Winston is forced to betray his love for Julia, and his feelings for her are destroyed.

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Winston is released to live out his final days as a broken man. Soon, the Thought Police will execute him. Winston has submitted completely and loves Big Brother.

Winston Smith:

Winston Smith Late 30s, lonely, in poor health, separated Alienated by his awareness/intellectual Rebels - diary/Julia Needs to understand the past Afraid of rats Is broken in the end " But it was all right, everything was all right, the struggle was finished. He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother ." pg 300

Julia:

Julia Young, beautiful, sensual Devious – plans trysts and pretends well Small scale rebellion Not intellectual Longs to be feminine O’Brien says she gives up easily Loses her sensuality at the end " she only questioned the teachings of the Party when they in some way touched upon her own life. Often she was ready to accept the official mythology, simply because the difference between truth and falsehood did not seem important to her ." pg 154

O’Brien:

O’Brien Complex/paradoxical Burly and imposing, wears glasses and adjusts them – “refined” Tormentor/saviour ' 'Do you remember writing in your diary …'that it did not matter whether I was a friend or an enemy, since I was at least a person who understood you and could be talked to? You were right. I enjoy talking to you. Your mind appeals to me. It resembles my own mind except that you happen to be insane .' pg. 271

Minor Characters of Interest:

Minor Characters of Interest Syme – represents the Party’s unwillingness to allow unique minds to exist. He is vaporised. “ One of these days, thought Winston with sudden deep conviction, Syme will be vaporized. He is too intelligent… The Party does not like such people ”. Parsons – a typically orthodox man. His imprisonment at the end reinforces the injustice of the system “…one of those completely unquestioning, devoted drudges on whom…the stability of the Party depended ." —pg 22

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The Characters: Big Brother - He is the Mysterious omnipresent figurehead who is the embodiment of all the ideals of the party.

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The Minor Characters - Emmanuel Goldstein : * he is the leader of the rebels and designated enemy of the citizens.

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The Minor Characters Mr. Charring ton : - He is a secret member of the thought police. - He owns and operate an antique store. - He rents Winston and Julia a room as a trap for O'Brien.

Themes:

Themes Dangers of Totalitarianism The Attack on Privacy The Control of Language The Destruction of History The Attack on Sex The Value of Memory The Appreciation on the Past The Fallibility of the Human Mind

Symbols/Motif:

Symbols/Motif Urban decay (motif) Big Brother Paperweight/rhyme “The Place Where there is no Darkness” Red-armed prole woman Winston’s diary

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The Oceania is a semi exact reflection, though fictional , of a society similar to Hitler’s & Stalin. Complete repression of the human spirit, absolute governmental control of daily life, constant hunger. Systematic “vaporization” of individuals who do not, or will not, comply with the government’s values. Big Brother is recognizable (he is physically similar to both Hitler and Stalin,

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The mysterious head of government is the omniscient, omnipotent, beloved Big Brother, or "BB." Big Brother is described as "a man of about forty-five, with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome features." He is usually displayed on posters with the slogan "BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU." His nemesis is the hated Emmanuel Goldstein, a Party member who had been in league with Big Brother and The Party during the revolution. Goldstein is said to be a major part of the Brotherhood, a vast underground anti-Party fellowship.

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The Political Geography The world was controlled by three functionally similar totalitarian super states: - Oceania. - Eurasia. - Eastasia .

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Political Geography in the world of Nineteen Eighty-Four

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The Ministries of Oceania Oceania's four ministries are housed in huge pyramidal structures displaying the three slogans of the party on their sides. The Ministry of Peace Minipax is the newspeak name for the Ministry of Peace, which concerns itself with making war The Ministry of Plenty Miniplenty in Newspeak, it is the ministry involved in maintaining ubiquitous poverty in Oceania The Ministry of Truth Minitrue is the propaganda arm of the Ingsoc State. They distribute the leaflets, porno, and of course the telescreens. Winston Smith spends his daytime hours “correcting” historical records in Minitrue. The Ministry of Love Miniluv is a gigantic windowless building devoted to torture and brutality. The home of the thought police, it is surrounded by a maze of barbed wire and machinegun towers.

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The Settings - Oceania. - Mr. Charring ton’s rented room. - Ministry of Love.

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The Narrative - The novel is written in the first person narrator. - It is futuristic narration.

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The three slogans of the Party, visible everywhere, are: WAR IS PEACE FREEDOM IS SLAVERY IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH While by definition these words are antonyms, in the world of 1984 the world is in a state of constant war, no one is free, and everyone is ignorant. Through the universality of the extremes the terms become meaningless, and the slogans become axiomatic. They echo the slogan "Arbeit macht frei" ("Work Makes Freedom") on the gates of Auschwitz and other Nazi concentration camps; the slogans are obvious non sequiturs being passed off as truth by a totalitarian power. This type of semiconscious lie, and the deliberate self-deception with which the citizens are encouraged to accept it, is called doublethink.

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The world is controlled by three functionally similar authoritarian superstates engaged in perpetual war with each other: Oceania (ideology: Ingsoc – English Socialism), Eurasia (ideology: Neo-Bolshevism) and Eastasia (ideology: Death Worship or Obliteration of the Self). In terms of the political map of the late 1940s when the book was written, Oceania covers the areas of the British Empire and Commonwealth, the United States of America and Latin America; Eastasia corresponds to China, Japan, Korea, and India, and Eurasia corresponds to the Soviet Union and Continental Europe. The United Kingdom's placement in Oceania rather than in Eurasia is commented upon in the book as an undisputed historic anomaly.

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Newspeak Newspeak, the "official language" of Oceania, is extraordinary in that its vocabulary decreases every year; the state of Oceania sees no purpose in maintaining a complex language, and so Newspeak is a language dedicated to the "destruction of words." As the character Syme puts it:

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The true goal of Newspeak is to take away the ability to adequately conceptualize revolution, or even dissent, by removing words that could be used to that end. Since the thought police had yet to develop a method of reading people's minds to catch dissent, Newspeak was created so that it wasn't even possible to think a dissenting thought. This concept has been examined (and widely discounted) in linguistics. (Sapir-Whorf hypothesis)

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"Of course the great wastage is in the verbs and adjectives, but there are hundreds of nouns that can be got rid of as well... If you have a word like 'good', what need is there for a word like 'bad'? 'Ungood' will do just as well... Or again, if you want a stronger version of 'good', what sense is there in having a whole string of vague useless words like 'excellent' and 'splendid' and all the rest of them? 'Plusgood' covers the meaning, or 'doubleplusgood' if you want something stronger still.... In the end the whole notion of goodness and badness will be covered by only six words; in reality, only one word." (Part One, Chapter Five)

More Clever Things….:

More Clever Things…. Children are evil – new generation The inherent contradiction of party slogans Goldstein’s book – true or false? Winston’s betrayal of Julia – the last of his humanity?

Key Quotes cont’d:

Key Quotes cont’d “ Thoughtcrime does not entail death: thoughtcrime is death . " —pg 27 “ Who controls the past …controls the future: who controls the present controls the past ." —pg 32 “ If there was hope, it must lie in the proles .. ” – pg 60 “ We are the dead ”.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The slogan is an important example of the Party’s technique of using false history to break down the psychological independence of its subjects. Control of the past ensures control of the future, because the past can be treated essentially as a set of conditions that justify or encourage future goals: if the past was idyllic, then people will act to re-create it; if the past was nightmarish, then people will act to prevent such circumstances from recurring. The Party creates a past that was a time of misery and slavery from which it claims to have liberated the human race, thus compelling people to work toward the Party’s goals.

Key Quotes:

Key Quotes WAR IS PEACE FREEDOM IS SLAVERY IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU

PowerPoint Presentation:

That the national slogan of Oceania is equally contradictory is an important testament to the power of the Party’s mass campaign of psychological control. In theory, the Party is able to maintain that “War Is Peace” because having a common enemy keeps the people of Oceania united. “Freedom Is Slavery” because, according to the Party, the man who is independent is doomed to fail. By the same token, “Slavery Is Freedom,” because the man subjected to the collective will is free from danger and want. “Ignorance Is Strength” because the inability of the people to recognize these contradictions cements the power of the authoritarian regime

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