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how to make dissertation


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How to Write a Scientific Synopsis of Dissertation By Prof. Goutam Sadhu IIHMR Jaipur

Introduction :

Introduction Synopsis a brief presentation which describes the purpose of research and method of conducting dissertation. Dissertation is a systematic objective analysis and recording that may lead to controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalization, principles or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events.

Dissertation :

Dissertation Contributes in creation of new knowledge It helps the candidate to develop scientific attitude Helps develop attitude of critical reading. It is a first step from here one goes on to become an author–authorship develops It is a part of curriculum in most of the Post graduate and doctoral level studies

Why Write Synopsis :

Why Write Synopsis It is useful in developing an ability to critically think on the subject under study. It makes us utilize the past body of published knowledge and create a synthesized document. It makes us write in a manner that demonstrates sound theoretical rationale. One can address to the issue if how to represent the need to utilize appropriate method for undertaking study. It makes us to create a team by developing better communication skills.

Steps of Writing a Research Proposal :

Steps of Writing a Research P roposal Choosing a G ood Research Q uestion It should be interesting to you, to your guide, for the science and finally should have utility of the world It should be relevant to you, to your science and of course to your subject under study. It should be novel and not mere duplication It should be feasible, in terms of time available with you for study, there should be material available to conduct the study, there should be expertise available around who can guide you on the topic. It should be ethical from point of view of patient, research and also society.

How to Arrive at the Question:

How to Arrive at the Question This arises from your observations and after making due references on the available literature knowledge available on the subject as of now One should discuss the though that gets generated with the guide and generate possible questions that your study can address After generating the questions one need to evaluate id it is really possible to raise these questions and then finally choose the appropriate question which this study desires to seek answers

Developing a Research Question :

Developing a Research Question Spend time it is most important aspect – give adequate time to developing the research question after addressing all the above questions. Time spent on this aspect will pay the maximum dividends in better quality project and less time wasted in performing project. Question should general questions and then come down to specific aspects.

Process of Developing Question :

Process of Developing Question Write down all the ideas that get generated in your mind Build upon your ideas and be creative Don’t get influenced by others suggestions Be realistic about time

How Does One Evaluate :

How Does One Evaluate A check list noted below helps to evaluate Yourself Design suits your personality Build current knowledge and skill Further career / goals Interest – yours Literature Literature base? Recent literature interest? Unanswered questions? Other resources Subject availability Material expertise?

Writing Style :

Writing S tyle The words that you mean should be written, they should not mean anything more or less then what you desire to express. Be careful in the word you choose, loose use of words can mean distortion of actual meaning – terminology should be taken care off. Contd..

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The writing should be logical and scientific, we should be alert that we are creating a documents that will be analyzed by peers and also utilized by them to enhance the knowledge base. Choice of tense, it is advisable to use past tense when one writing on literature review, present tense when thinking about the current process of thin king, future tense when common ting on future actions. Preferably it should be in third person.

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Main features of Synopsis Writing These can vary based on the academic organization seeking research document. But the general trends in the current academic circles suggest the following heads.


Steps: Title Introduction Review of literature Need/Justification of the Study Objectives Hypothesis (if any) Study Area Data and Methodology Tools and Techniques of Data Collection Analysis of the Data and Information Organization of the Thesis References/Bibliography

1. There should be first page in Synopsis :

1 . There should be first page in Synopsis Cover page should spell out the title Name of candidate with his registration number Name of guide, subject/department to which the candidate belongs along with the address, telephone and email of the institute where the project is being undertaken.

2. Title:

2. Title This gives the first impression to the reader It should be concise It should reflect nature of study and relationship between hypothesis and guiding question.

3. Introduction :

3. Introduction It should be short but informative It should be direct to the point Avoid using technical terms Be clear in stating your problem There should be logic in progression from identification of problem of raising formal question Why the topic is significant – this can be raised and answered based on your experience, prevalence in the current scenario and also mention the impact on the community of the study You can also justify your interest in the topic in the introduction

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There should be logic in progression from identification of problem of raising formal question Why the topic is significant – this can be raised and answered based on your experience, prevalence in the current scenario and also mention the impact on the community of the study You can also justify your interest in the topic in the introduction

Literature Review :

Literature Review It is important that you study all the currently available literature before initiating proposal. This give an adequate knowledge of the topic, it helps to have critical appraisal of ideas and hypothesis that are raised in the literature and also those that get generated in your mind. It helps to random scanning of the various ideas. This actually helps in design of protocol of the study It also informs you if the topic has been researched in past and which aspect was researched It also gives an idea to which was the methods and procedures utilized in those studies as against the one you are thinking

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When writing about findings and work done use past tense When you are addressing to the study question use present tense. Be clear that you have defined the boundaries of your study or else you will be gathering a lot of information which is of no significance to your study. The range of literature study should be from significant past to most recent inputs on the subject under study Literature review should give information which supports the study and method utilised in the study It should conclude a summary and at the same time be critique on the past literature and its data

5. Objectives :

5. Objectives After one has gone through the above process he can spell out the objectives of study It is putting down steps by which one will attempt to achieve answers to the questions that made the study must for the researcher They should be listed in the order of importance, in chronological order and they should be consistent with hypothesis The objectives should be certainly in tune with the title of the study

6. Hypothesis :

6. Hypothesis It is a statement declaring true expectation of the result It can be experimental in nature or correlation studies. The current practice that is prevalent is “to reject null hypothesis” It can “directional hypothesis” in which the direction of difference is predicted. It can be “ non-directional hypothesis” in which one merely states that there will be difference.

7. Method :

7 . Method Subject / Participant We have to spell out the method of choosing the participant. We have to based on the nature of study have to define the sample size and also we should be able to justify the need for the sample size. Here we need to state the inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and withdrawal criteria of the samples under study. It should state a critique on the method undertaken by past students on the subject. The information source can be from journals, review articles, textbooks, internet, colleagues, mentors, experts, seminars etc.

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Procedure There are two ways of going ahead retrospective study: this should be able to spell out the number of cases, source of the cases. The procedure of data collection in the form of cases should be spelt out clearly. It can understand the diseases and patient as a person. The tools of analyzing these cases have to be defined and utilized.

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Prospective Study The study involves conducting study on sample size in which the data is recorded for the first time. This means we have to define the venue of where the study will be undertaken. How the study will be done in a chronological sequence addressing to questions of what is to be studied, when will the sample be studied, how will be the sample data recorded and by whom. It also demands we stating the sampling technique.

References / Bibliography :

References / Bibliography It is important component of the study. We have to state the sources from where we have been able to create purposes of the study. It has to be written in a particular format, alphabetical order of the author’s last name who have been referred, followed by the publication, publisher and edition etc.

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Internet reference should be stated along with complete URL address and the date, and time of surfing for referencing, journals have to be referred with author’s last name in alphabetical order, article referred journal name and volume details. There other method used is in sequencing the references as they appear in the study. A representative synopsis is presented below to illustrate the concept in practice.

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