Two girls and a guy survey pp .5.1.11

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Students believe that chewing gum will improve their short-term memory : 

Students believe that chewing gum will improve their short-term memory By: Two Girls and a Guy Elizabeth Angel Joe Cho Amy Watkins

Slide 2: 

We reviewed various literature on the effects chewing gum has on short-term memory. Due to being in graduate school, there is a great need to hold a lot of information within our brains while taking in vast amounts of new information in too. Method Discussion Students believe that chewing gum will improve their short-term memory Elizabeth Angel, Joe Cho, Amy Watkins Azusa Pacific University How often do you chew gum while studying? References Literature Review Results Earlier this semester, 6 possible hypotheses for research were gathered from the team members. Upon many discussions, one hypothesis was chosen for the research and was approved by the professor. A total of 8 participants completed our online survey through SurveyMonkey. SurveyMonkey also did an analysis of our results The number of participants was smaller than we had hoped, but we sent out the survey to 22 participants twice in hopes of reaching a higher number of participants. Our team agrees that this test did not do justice on finding out their belief about gum chewing as an aid for enhancing short-term memory. We presume that most of them chew gum for fun or for bad breath and never as a method to improve short-term memory. Baker JR, Benzance JB, Zellaby E, Aggleton JP. “Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.” Appetite. 2004; 43: 207-210. Level of Agreement: Gum Aids in Memory Recall

LITERATURE REVIEW SECTION : 

LITERATURE REVIEW SECTION

Summary of the Literature Review : 

Summary of the Literature Review We reviewed various literature on the effects chewing gum has on short-term memory. Due to being in graduate school, there is a great need to hold a lot of information within our brains while taking in vast amounts of new information in too. Students have turned to numerous methods in order to help handle this situation, and our research focuses on the idea graduate students use chewing gum in hopes that it will improve their memory.

Literature Review : 

Literature Review We reviewed various literature on the effects chewing gum has on short-term memory. Due to being in graduate school, there is a great need to hold a lot of information within our brains while taking in vast amounts of new information in too. Students have turned to numerous methods in order to help handle this situation, and our research focuses on the idea graduate students use chewing gum in hopes that it will improve their memory.

Literature Review : 

Literature Review We reviewed many articles about the usage of gum at an aid for improving short-term memory. We began our literature review by finding studies about effects chewing gum has on memory. A study divided participants into those that chewed regular gum versus those chewing mint gum. Participants completed context-dependent memory tasks. The results found no improvement in tasks when chewing gum, but there was no significant difference between the participants who chewed regular gum and those that chewed mint gum. All participants rated themselves, showing a significant difference in their ranking of their ability when they did chew gum, stating they felt they had done better in the tasks when chewing gum (Johnson, & Miles, 2010). While this study was discouraging to find given our thoughts, but luckily was the only research contradicting our hypothesis. Another study done by Cardiff University highlighted how chewing gum showed improved the results on intellectual tasks and increased alertness in mood (Smith, 2010). Given higher education focuses more on intellectual tasks, this was a good study to back up our hypothesis.

Literature Review : 

Literature Review Another study conducted at University of Northumbria in the United Kingdom showed gum chewers scored 24% higher on test involving immediate word recall than those in the study who did not chew gum. The study also showed the gum chewers scored 36% higher than those with test involving delayed word recall (Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes K, 2002) A study similar to the situation many students go through when cramming before a big test, showed students who used gum as a learning aid where better able to recall information on a test performed 24 hours later (Baker 2004). Another study showed similar results of chewing gum increased the performance on tracking skills compared to those not chewing gum. The study went more in depth ranging another study that showed when sleep deprivation played a part, neither the placebo group of the gum chewing group performed better than the other group (Kohler, Pavy, & Van Den Heuvel, 2006).

Literature Review : 

Literature Review The sleep deprivation part of the study sparked an idea about the timing of tthe morning were able to recall information better than those taking courses in the afternoon. The study went further in delaying tests on the knowledge by a week, this time finding those obtaining knowledge in the afternoon were better able to recall the information a week later compared to the group in morning (Folkard, Monk, Bradbury, & Rosenthall, 2011). While not focusing on gum chewing, it did a extraneous variable we should keep in mind if ever designed an experiment, and something to consider asking in our own study. Back to the first study discussed, our focus went to the idea of flavored gum and the effects this could have on the gum chewed. Zoladz and Raudenbush (2005) found odors of gum, specifically cinnamon, showed improved scores in cognitive ability. While the participants did not chew gum, they did smell the chemical that produces the flavor and smell of gum. This study helped to show that maybe the first study we reviewed had been unable to produce results due to the use of non-flavor gum and mint gum; none of which are cinnamon, the smell that had produced results in this present research. he

Literature Review : 

Literature Review Another theory revolving around gum improving short-term memory was how chewing gum reduced the stress of the individual, allowing for gum chewer to feel more relaxes and be able to focus more. A study done at Cardiff University used 2,248 full-time workers to rate their stress with 61% of the participants being gum chewers. Those that chewed gum showed lower levels of perceived stress than those that did not chew gum (Smith 2009). Examining this idea lead to the idea of caffeine being released when chewing caffeinated gum due to caffeine being another external study aid to help students in higher education stay up to complete papers and pull all night study sessions. Again, looking at research performed at Cardiff University, it was shown through results of a recent study that caffeinated gum was associated with not only a more positive mood but also better performance on tasks requiring continuous attention (Smith, 2009). This research is a significant finding for students who have to complete tests that can take upward to three hours to complete.

Literature Review : 

Literature Review Tying in the study done on the chemical smells of gum mentioned earlier, where it was found that the scent of cinnamon showed improvement, we turned to a study done the flavored gum versus regular gum. Participants chewed gum for five minutes, some with flavored gum and others with gum base. The data on EEF was gathering showing different areas of the brain were activated depending on whether the participant chewed flavored gum or regular gum base (Takanobu Morinushi, Masumoto, & Takigawa, 2000). This study shows the type of gum can effect which part of the brain is activated, leaning towards the idea that different types of gum can yield various results.

Literature Review : 

Literature Review Furthering our research, we felt the biological symptoms of chewing gum might also be causing the improvement in short-term memory. Wanting to have a full review of possible ideas for the explanation of chewing gum on the improvement of short-term memory, we reviewed articles measuring the brain after chewing gum. The first study showed the regardless of flavor of gum, chewing could induce concentration from participants. This was done by measuring the electroencephalography (EEG) in participants (Takanobu Morinushi, Masumoto, & Takigawa, 2001).

Methods Section : 

Methods Section

Participants : 

Participants For this study, 23 Azusa Pacific University Graduate students from Research Methodology class were randomly picked to take the test. The 23 students are ranging from ages 18 to 50. To conduct a fair trial, random email addresses were collected from the class email lists. Individuals were informed about the purpose of the study via email and asked to complete the online test with a choice of aborting the test at any time.

Materials : 

Materials Blog page and personal emails were used to communicate and post procedures and results of the study. Cell phones were also used to communicate any urgent changes and emergencies regarding the survey. For the convenience of both experimenters and participants, online SurveyMonkey (surveymonkey.com) was utilized. SurveyMonkey provided convenient ways to gather and analyze the data for experimenters. It also provided the participants some freedom to take the survey online anywhere, anytime, at their convenience.

Procedure : 

Procedure Earlier this semester, 6 possible hypotheses for research were gathered from the team members. Upon many discussions, one hypothesis was chosen for the research and was approved by the professor. After the hypothesis and the participants were approved, 2 qualitative and 8 quantitative questions were formulated by the testers. The questions were submitted to be approved by the Office of Institutional Research and Assessment (OIRA). A header from OIRA was granted to be included in the emails as a stamp of approval for testing. Informed consent including name of the group and the purpose of the test were attached in the sent emails. The participants had to read the email and agree on the condition before taking the test by clicking on the link provided. The test results were gathered anonymously to protect their privacy.

Results Section : 

Results Section

Results : 

Results A total of 8 participants completed our online survey through SurveyMonkey. SurveyMonkey also did an analysis of our results The number of participants was smaller than we had hoped, but we sent out the survey to 22 participants twice in hopes of reaching a higher number of participants. Surprisingly all of those that replied were females with a majority being between the ages of 26 to 32 (M = 2.38, SD = 1.19). Following this section, you will see a chart for each of the questions discussed in this results Starting out the survey, 62% of the participants stated they chewed gum some of the time (M = 3.63, SD = 0.92). However, after this question, our results became disappointing with participants answering mainly that they rarely chewed gum while studying or when taking a test. Overwhelming, 50% stated that they ‘rarely any of the time’ when asked ‘how often do you chew gum while studying?’ Rating questions were completed on a 5-point scale, and this question resulted in the M of 4.25 and the standard deviation of 0.5. Even more disappointing was the results to the question ‘how often do you chew gym while taking a test?’ which an more than half of the participants stated they never chew gum while taking a test (M=4.63, SD = 0.52).  This data from these two questions do not bode well in trying to prove our hypothesis. It was not shocking to find that the participants did mainly disagreed with the statement of “Gum aids in memory recall,” given the prior results from earlier questions.  It is important to note that participants rated their memory as average, if not higher (M= 3.8, SD = 0.9), giving some reason as to why maybe participants did not buy into the theory of gum helping with short-term memory. On the final question in the survey, the participants were asked to list any methods that they use to help them concentrate with a lot stating either music or silence as their best way of studying and taking exams. One participant stated using “pnemonic devices,” while another stated “tea” leaving the rest stating either music or silence.

Survey Results : 

Survey Results

Survey Results : 

Survey Results

Gender : 

Gender Male Female

What age group best describes you? : 

What age group best describes you?

How often do you chew gum? : 

How often do you chew gum?

How often do you chew gum while studying? : 

How often do you chew gum while studying?

How often do you chew gum while taking tests? : 

How often do you chew gum while taking tests?

How often do you use study aids? : 

How often do you use study aids?

What type of Gum do you like? : 

What type of Gum do you like?

Level of Agreement: Gum Aids in Memory Recall : 

Level of Agreement: Gum Aids in Memory Recall

How would you rate your short term memory recollection? : 

How would you rate your short term memory recollection?

What methods of (if any) do you use to help you concentrate? : 

What methods of (if any) do you use to help you concentrate?

Discussion Section : 

Discussion Section

Discussion : 

Discussion This study was modified numerously to fit the criteria of the IRB. The original plan was to compare the results of short-term memory with a gum-chewing group vs. a non gum-chewing group. Due to IRB Exemption categories, our professor decided that our test and hypothesis should be modified. Thus, our hypothesis changed from If people chew gum, then it improves their short term memory to Students believe that chewing gum will improve their short-term memory to fit the criteria. Our team hypothesized that since this study was not widely known to general population, the majority of our participants would not use gum to increase their short-term memory. They might not even be aware of the studies that are out there. This assumption was confirmed by the result which indicates that although all of our participants use various methods to help them concentrate, half of the participants were not aware of the gum being an aid for enhancing short-term memory.

Discussion : 

Discussion Our team agrees that this test did not do justice on finding out their belief about gum chewing as an aid for enhancing short-term memory. We presume that most of them chew gum for fun or for bad breath and never as a method to improve short-term memory. The result shows that 50% of the participants chose neutral stance when it comes to their opinion about the statement: Gum aids in memory recall. This result indicates that half of the participants are either not aware about the clinical studies about gum-chewing or they never tried chewing gum as an aid for concentration. The study is fairly new and not many people know about it. Thus, it is possible that their belief about gum chewing is based on their assumption rather than experience or knowledge.

Discussion : 

Discussion However, one thing that this study has shown was the advocacy of various study aids. Even though 50% of people did not agree on gum being an aid for improving their short-term memory, it is evident that everyone implements some kind of methods to improve their short-term memory such as drinking tea, listening to music, and finding a quiet environment. This result could mean that if they have better understanding of the existing clinical studies about gum-chewing, there is a higher chance of them implementing this method in their study patterns.

Discussion : 

Discussion It seems this test is relevant to the students because college students are always looking for ways to enhance their short-term memory for better grades and easier studying. According to our participants, modifying the environment help them to focus. Only one participant specified tea as an aid for improving concentration. According to our test, our participants prefer natural means to gain concentration. But we are not convinced if this result represents the public. It appears that the data gathered from 8 participants is too minuscule to make any generalization. Asking more questions would be helpful. 10 questions we asked were insufficient and it would have helped to gather some more information. Unexpectedly, all of our participants were females so the opinions about males are unknown. In order to make some generalization, bigger number of diverse participants and relevant questions are needed.

Reference Section : 

Reference Section

References : 

References Baker JR, Benzance JB, Zellaby E, Aggleton JP. “Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.” Appetite. 2004; 43: 207-210.  Folkard, S., Monk, T.H., Bradbury, R., & Rosenthall, J. (2011). Time of day effects in school children's immediate and delayed recall of meaningful material. British Journal of Psychology, 68(1), 45-50.  Johnson, A.J., & Miles, C. (2010). Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour. British Journal of Psychology, 99(2), 293-306.  Kohler, M., Pavy, A., & Van Den Heuvel, C. (2006). The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 15(4), 358-368.

References : 

References Phillips, S., & Fox, P. An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory. Psychopharmacology, 140(4), 429-233. Smith, A.P. (2009). Chewing gum, stress and health. Wiley InterScience, 25. Retrieved from http://www.interscience.wiley.com doi: 10.1002/smi.1272  Smith, S. (2009). Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention. Human Psychopharmacology, 24, 239-247. Smith, A. (2010). Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers. Nutritional Neuroscience, 13(17),

References : 

References Takanobu Morinushi, Y., Masumoto, H.K., & Takigawa, M. (2000). Effect on electroencephalogram of chewing flavored gum. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 54(6), 645-651.  Takanobu Morinushi, Y., Masumoto, H.K., & Takigawa, M. (2001). Effect on electroencephalogram of chewing flavored gum. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences,  Wilkinson L, Scholey AB, Wesnes K. “Chewing gum selectively improves memory in healthy volunteers.” Appetite. 2002; 38(3): 235-236.  Zoladz, P.R., & Raudenbush, B. (2005). Cognitive enhancement through stimulation of the chemical senses. North American Jounral of Psychology, 7(1),

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