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Power Two concepts that are interconnected in all forms of business Differ in three main areas: Goal Compatibility Direction of Influence Research Emphasis April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 2 Power : Power Power can be defined two ways: Capability Capacity to effect organizational outcomes April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 3 Bases of Power : Bases of Power Formal Coercive Reward Legitimate April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 4 Personal Expert Referent Most Frequently Observed Bases of Power : Most Frequently Observed Bases of Power Position Power Expert Power Resource Power Political Power April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 5 Which is Most Effective? : Which is Most Effective? Personal power is the most effective. charisma Positively related to commitment and performance Coercive power should be avoided April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 6 Power Tactics : Power Tactics Power tactics are different from the Bases of Power The Bases of Power are fixed- either you have the capability or you don’t Power tactics can be used by anyone in any position April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 7 Nine Power Tactics : Nine Power Tactics Legitimacy Rational Persuasion Inspirational Appeals Consultation Coalitions Exchange Personal Appeals Ingratiation Pressure Ingratiation Video April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 8 Which is the most effective? : Which is the most effective? Rational Persuasion Leaders that regularly engage in the use of rationality are perceived to have more legitimate, expert and referent power. April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 9 When are others best used? : When are others best used? Downward Influence: Consultation, Inspirational Appeals, Pressure, Legitimizing Peer Influence: Personal Appeals, Coalition, Ingratiation, Exchange Upward Influence: Coalition April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 10 Power Strategies : Power Strategies Four Power Strategies Strategy: Involving Others Strategy: Negotiating with Others Strategy: Directing Others Strategy: Enlisting Others Based on 5 principles: Goals, Controls, Urgency (time), Balance of Power, Commitment April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 11 Power In Groups : Power In Groups Coalition: Strength in numbers Often used to get political support, resources or approvals Two Predictions seek to maximize their size interdependence within an organization can affect the formation of a coalition April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 12 Political Behavior : Political Behavior Behavior by an individual that influences the allocation of advantages and disadvantages within an organization 2 influential factors Individual organizational April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 13 Factors Contributing to Political Behavior : Factors Contributing to Political Behavior Individual Factors A person’s personality and needs Internal locus of control within an individual A high Machiavellian Commitment to the organization Organizational Factors Organizational culture Organizational decision making Evaluations Organizational pressures on individuals Trustworthiness within an organization April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 14 Response to Organizational Politics : Response to Organizational Politics Most responses are negative, especially for those who do not want to partake in the political games of a organization Response can be sensible if it understood who makes the decisions and why they where chosen to do so Defensive behaviors April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 15 Defensive Behaviors : Defensive Behaviors Negative reaction to an action occurring within an organization Most common reactions: Avoiding action Avoiding blame Avoiding change April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 16 Impression Management : Impression Management Can be defined as: Process used by individuals who attempt to control how others perceive them The ability to influence an outcome through personal perception April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 17 Seven IM Techniques : Seven IM Techniques Conformity Excuses Apologies Self-Promotion Flattery Favors Association April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 18 IM Technique Effectiveness : IM Technique Effectiveness Effectiveness of Impression Management may be linked to: Interview Success: self- promotion Performance Evaluations: ingratiation April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 19 Theorists/ Researchers : Theorists/ Researchers Bases of Power Bertrame. H. Raven John French Power Influences Kipnis Schmidt Wilkinson Current Gary Yukl Researchers Peter Fleming André Spicer April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 20 Alternative Theories : Alternative Theories Struggle Power is an ongoing relationship between subordinates and superordinates Power must have resistance to maintain organizational politics, otherwise “tyranny prevails” Least Interest Principle Least interested has most power Social Exchange Theory Give in order to get more April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 21 Current Issue : Current Issue Enron Scandal Abuse of Legitimate Power Senior Executives encouraged those under them to allow incorrect accounting practices Executives abused power to perform fraud and insider trading April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 22 Ethics of Behaving Politically : Ethics of Behaving Politically Consider these three questions… What is the utility of engaging in behavior? How does the utility of engaging in the political behavior balance out any harm (potential harm) it will do to others? Does the political activity conform to standards of equity and justice? April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 23 Implication For Managers : Implication For Managers Power is needed to get things done Not the only one trying to attain power Understand the most useful bases of power Understand the most valuable power tactics Understand role dependencies and power relationships within an organization Have to accept an organization for the political machine that it is April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 24 QUICK QUIZ ANSWERS : QUICK QUIZ ANSWERS 1.Which one of these is a power tactic? C. Personal Appeals 2. T/F: Defensive behaviors are associated with positive feelings towards a job and work environment B. False 3. Successful Coalitions: D. All of the Above April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 25 Answers cont’d : Answers cont’d 4. Which is a soft power tactic and includes the characteristic charisma? C. Personal 5. Ingratiation is a power tactic, but it is also used in one concept? B. Impression Management April 13, 2009 MGMT 451 26 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.