Transgenic animals

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S.SUNEHA

Transgenic animals:

Transgenic animals Transgenic animals are genetically engineered or genetically modified animals, with a new heritable character. Transgenesis is the introduction of exogenous DNA into the genome to create and maintain a stable heritable character. Transgene is the foreign DNA that is introduced.

Methods of Production:

Methods of Production DNA micro injection Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer

DNA Microinjection:

DNA Microinjection

DNA Microinjection:

DNA Microinjection Gene transfer by microinjection is the predominant method. Transgenic founder: Mouse carrying the transgene Limitation: Low efficiency

Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer  :

Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer  For the transfer of small pieces of DNA (8kb). Drawback: Risk of retroviral contamination.

Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer  :

Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer   Transgene is introduced into the isolated embryonic stem cells by microinjection. Cells containing transgene can be identified by: A marker gene PCR analysis Then they are incorporated into the host's embryo, resulting in a chimeric animal.

Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer  :

Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer  

Transgenic Mice:

Transgenic mice contain additional foreign DNA in every cell. They are used to study gene function or regulation and to model human diseases. Transgenic Mice Methods of production: DNA microinjection Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer

Super Mouse :

Super Mouse Super mouse was created by inserting a rat growth hormone gene into the mouse genome. Metabolic super mice have up to 100 times the concentration of the PEPCK-C enzyme in their muscles, compared to ordinary mice. Super ovulated mouse can yield up to 40 eggs unlike the normal mouse which yields 5-10 eggs.

Knockout mouse :

Knockout mouse These are produced by gene targeting technique which is carried out in mouse embryonic stem cells. The target gene is inactivated or "knocked out"  by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA (selectable marker gene). Knocking out the activity of a gene provides information about what that gene normally does.  They are named after the gene that has been inactivated. p53 knockout mouse

Nude Mouse:

Nude Mouse Mouse with disruption of the FOXN1 gene that causes a deteriorated or absent thymus, resulting in an inhibited immune system due to a greatly reduced number of T cells. It is valuable to research because it can receive many different types of tissue and tumor grafts, as it mounts no rejection response.

Applications of Transgenic animals:

Applications of Transgenic animals Powerful tool for studying the gene expression and developmental processes in higher organisms. Good models for understanding the human diseases. Several proteins produced by transgenic animals are important for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range. Many animals have been created that express GFP gene as a proof-of-concept that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism.

Transgenic animal models:

Transgenic animal models Alzheimer’s mouse: produced by mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. Oncomouse: produced by introducing chimeric DNA consisting of c- myc gene and MMT virus. Prostate mouse: produced by introducing chimeric DNA consisting of int-2 and viral promoter. Hypertensive rat: produced by introducing mouse renin gene.

Transgenic animals as bioreactors:

Transgenic animals as bioreactors Transgenic animal Protein Product Biological importance Mouse Immunoglobulins Enhance immunity Rabbit α - Glucosidase Treatment of Pompe’s disease Sheep α 1 - Antitrypsin Treatment of emphysema Goat Tissue plasminogen activator Dissolves blood clots in MI Pig Hemoglobin Blood transfusion Cow Interferon Provides resistance against viral infections

Recent advances:

Recent advances Xenotransplantation FcRn Over expression – Better IgG Protection Cloning of pet animals

FcRn Over expression – Better IgG Protection :

FcRn Over expression – Better IgG Protection Wild Type Animals FcRn Transgenic Animals

References:

References Hanson, R. W. & Hakimi, P. (2008). "Born to run; the story of the PEPCK- Cmus mouse". Biochimie 90 (6): 383–42. Kacskovics I, Cervenak J, Erdei A, Goldsby RA, Butler JE (2011) Recent advances using FcRn overexpression in transgenic animals to overcome impediments of standard antibody technologies. mAbs 3: 431-439. Frank J, Pignata C, Panteleyev AA, et al. (1999). "Exposing the human nude phenotype". Nature 398 (6727): 473–4.

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