The Definite and Indefinite Articles: The D efinite and I ndefinite A rticles The definite and indefinite articles come under the global name “ determiners .” The Indefinite Article “A” and “ An ” a + a consonant sound an + a vowel sound ( a,e,i,o,u ) a car a policeman a sofa an artist an astronaut an eagle We use “a” before “u” when we pronounce it with a “y” sound (a uniform ) BUT ( an umbrella ). We use “ an ” before “h” when it is silent ( an hour ) BUT ( a horse ) a nd before “s” when the sound is pronounced as “es” ( He’s an SAS pilot ) The indefinite Article – A/AN: The indefinite Article – A/AN is used with singular countable nouns when we talk about things in general. An aeroplane is faster than a train . ( Which aeroplane ? ) Aeroplanes in general. A crocodile is a very dangerous animal. Which crocodile . We don’t mean a specific crocodile . We mean crocodiles in general. A nurse works in a hospital. ( Which nurse?) Nurses in general. The indefinite Article – A/AN: The indefinite Article – A/AN 2. is often used after the verbs “ to be ” and “ to have ”. Mr. Jones is a doctor. Mr. Jones was a doctor. John has got a new sports car. We’ve got a pet dog . We do not use a/ an with uncountable or plural nouns . We can use some instead or no article at all . Would you like some sugar ? I would like some sweets . I don’t like oranges . The Definite Article - The: The Definite Article - The We use “ the ” with words like : cinema and theatre radio, seaside , beach etc. We go to the cinema every Saturday . Can you turn on the radio, please ? Shall we go to the beach today ? We use a/ an or the before a singular countable noun to represent a class of people , animals or things . A/ The is more dangerous than a/ the The French / the English , The Definite Article - The: The Definite Article - The The is used : before singular and plural nouns , both countable and uncountable when we are talking about something specific : The dog – the dogs , the wine , the butter , the woman – the women etc. when the noun is mentioned for the second time: There’s a man and a woman at the door . The man is German and the woman is from Ireland . The is also used before::: The is also used before : : nouns which are unique : The sun , The moon , The Acrpolis names of cinemas , hotels , newspapers , museums , ships . names of rivers , seas, oceans , groups of islands / states , mountain ranges , deserts names with ……..of ( The Tower of London – the King of Spain ) The is also used before:: The is also used before : names of people / families / nationalities : the Browns , the Dutch etc. musical instruments : the piano. the violin titles without proper names – the Queen the President adjectives used as plural nouns – the poor , the rich etc. superlatives of adjectives and adverbs : the best , the most expensive etc “The” is omitted before:: “ The ” is omitted before : proper nouns – Juan comes from Spain . names of sports , activities , colours , substances and meals . He plays football . Dinner is at 8 o’clock . names of countries , cities , streets , parks , mountains , islands , lakes , continents etc. Madrid is in Spain . Mount Everest. the words bed , school , hospital, church , prison when they are used for the reason they exist - Peter is in hospital. BUT - his father is going to the hospital to visit him . titles with proper names . Queen Sofia of Spain , President Lincoln . The words “home” and “ mother / father ” - Mother is at home.