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Meat processing http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~meatsci/as55502.html Handbook of Food Product Manufacture http://depositfiles.com/en/files/4468639 Food Technology texbook(Chinese) Lawrie’s meat science Journal of Food Science Journals of Meat Industry (Chinese) Resource for Meat Learning Free Download History of Meat Processing : History of Meat Processing “Wine pool, meat forest” means well developed wine processing and meat pickling and drying in Chinese Shang Dynasty. Ham, salted meat are very popular in south China with a long history. Jianhua ham traced back to A.D. 618-907, Tang Dynasty. Sausage - first product，got idea from intestines. Homer’s Odyssey - 9th Century B.C. Greek writers – Salami, Salamis, e. coast of Cyprus Latin salsus - salted meat Slide 4: European influence Frankfurters –frankfort, germany Wieners – vienna, Austria Bologna - bologna, italy Genoa salami – genoa, italy Corned beef – old word “korn,” granular salt used to cure North American influence Hot dog & hamburger (in buns) Jerky - native Americans Meat Morphology and Chemistry Three Mucles : Meat Morphology and Chemistry Three Mucles Skeletal muscles, mainly consumed and processed Smooth muscles, stomac Heart muscles，cardiac muscles Muscle Diagram : Muscle Diagram Connective tissues Myofibers Bundles Nerve Actin flilaments myofilament Muscle Components : Muscle Components Moisture – 60% to 72% Protein – 10% to 20% Fat – 4% to 22% Ash - 1% Fat inside and around muscle tissues Moisture : Moisture ≥65% muscle composition 3.6 : 1 (moisture:protein ratio) Enhances protein extraction, affects texture Major yield factor Muscles dry out with age, lose moisture Water holding capacity (WHC), original+added in processing. Muscle Proteins : Muscle Proteins Contractile proteins Sarco-plasmic or plasma proteins Connective tissue proteins Thick filament, myosin Thin filament, actin collagen Slide 10: Postmortem Effects on WHC Actomyosin formation lower WHC relax contraction Contractile proteins : Contractile proteins Salt-soluble proteins Actin & myosin vs. Actomyosin Prerigor vs. Postrigor Activity: Add 1g salt to 50g minced meat, and agitae for 5 mintes, what will happen and why? Messager for extraction of salt soluble protein Contractile proteins : Contractile proteins Denaturation: By heat By low (acidic) pH Binds water & traps fat Changes product texture Help human digestion Slide 13: Protein chain Chain open Coagulate to network water fat Slide 14: Heat-induced aggregation of myosin *Yamamoto, 1990 Sarcoplasmic or Plasma Proteins : Sarcoplasmic or Plasma Proteins Water-soluble proteins Purge, drip or blood Consists of many proteins Enzymes - with rigor and aging Myoglobin - meat pigment Activity Boiling meat in a beaker. Observe a piece of defrozen meat. Wash a piece of meat Explain why Slide 16: Myoglobin Myoglobin : Myoglobin 95% of muscle iron Oxidizes - color fades, Like metal rusting Cured with nitrite Myoglobin Content of Selected Muscles : Myoglobin Content of Selected Muscles Find detailed explain in our BBS Connective Tissue Proteins : Connective Tissue Proteins Most abundant animal protein (e.G., Collagen) Transmits force of contraction Tough & salt insoluble Three concentric tubes Affects texture Connective Tissue Proteins : Connective Tissue Proteins Moist heat -softens Dry heat - toughens Heat - particles turn clear Low pH - turn white Functionality of finely chopped Connective tissues Fat : Fat Most variable component A variety of fatty acids Diets affect fatty acids Saturated vs unsaturated - melting points Mixing/chopping temperatures Development of rancidity Affecting processing What about our diet? Fat – important for: : Fat – important for: Flavor, Characteristic flavor of meat Product texture Proper growth & development of children Product cost reduction Without fat, all meats tast almost the same. Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry : Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry : Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry Oxidation of Fatty Acids : Oxidation of Fatty Acids Initiation: Unsaturated fatty acids plus O2, UV light, metal ions produce Reactive free-radicals Propagation/autoxidation: Free radicals + oxygen produce peroxides Peroxides produce aldehydes & ketones (flavors) Termination & Block : Termination & Block Run out of unsaturated fatty acids Block by addig antioxidants (before peroxides are formed),such as: BHT, BHA, propylgallate, citric acid, nitrite, phosphates, and natural antioxidants (spices, etc.) Warmed Over Flavors (WOF) Phospholipids coming in contact with iron & oxygen upon cooking of lean meat. Less reported in China. Meat Unit Operations : Meat Unit Operations Slaughter and rigor mortis, aging Cutting Formulation Size reduction, mixing and emulsion Curing & Fermentation Seasoning Stuffering Thermal processing &Refrigeration Slaughter and Rigor Mortis : Slaughter and Rigor Mortis Animal Edible Muscle Tissue Mucle Meat Slaughter and Rigor Mortis : Slaughter and Rigor Mortis Flashes about Slaughter : Flashes about Slaughter Cattle Slaughter http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/1.asp Pig Slaughter http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/13.asp Chicken Slaughter http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/4.asp Rigor Mortis : Rigor Mortis The process in converting muscle to meat. The circulatory system will no longer deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscle cells. The cells will continue to produce energy (ATP) by breaking down glycogen reserves, which produces lactic acid, dropping the pH to 5.2-5.6. When cells can not produce more ATP the muscle contracts 1 last time. Prevents Actin and myosin filaments to slide over each other. Slide 33: Activity Take an alive fish, such as carp, out of water. Observe the toughness of fish body for every one hour and record the changes. Explain the phonemna and make suggestion for traditional Chinese cooking. Cutting : Cutting Trim undesirables Better utilization Value added Manual work with mechanical tools Meat separaters Meat restructure Flash: Beef cutting http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/11.asp Slide 35: Mechanically Separated Pork being made from pork bones Formulation : Formulation Least cost formulation under the constraints of consumer acceptabilities and regulations. A typical problem of linear prgramming. Meat selection Ingredients apart from meat Seasoning Processing technology, flowsheet, equipments,etc. Spices, Seasonings and Flavorings : Spices, Seasonings and Flavorings Spices natural plant parts Seasonings and Flavorings mixtures of spices natural or artificial? MSG Taste : Taste Regions of the tongue sweet – tip salty –front sides sour –rear sides bitter –across rear of tongue Balance of Taste Sensations and Flavors : Balance of Taste Sensations and Flavors Better to balance taste sensations across the tongue, not confined to one area Difficult to distinguish individual flavors Provides a uniqueness that is difficult to copy Spice Characteristics : Spice Characteristics Mustard: Number one spice used in meat products. Black/white pepper: Most important spice, because of its quick pungent flavor. Red pepper: Used for its throat heat Paprika: Used for coloring in some products. Coriander: Used for its aromatic flavor. Nutmet/Mace: Used for its pungent flavor. Garlic: Used for its fat soluble flavor in beef and lamb products. Chili: Used for its roasted flavor in Tex-Mex products. Fennel: Used for its licorice flavor in Italian products. Sage: Used in fresh pork products. Ginger: Used for its warm bitter flavor. More important in meat products is its ability to minimize burping. Know More about Spices : Know More about Spices Food Info http://www.food-info.net/uk/index.htm Encyclopedia of Foods http://rapidshare.com/files/107905681/Encyclopedia_of_Foods.pdf Binders & Extenders : Binders & Extenders Starches native & modified potato - gel temp./cook temp. 3 1/2% limit (WHC) Carrageenans (Kappa) 1.5% in hams 149ºF to dissolve sliceability Flours higher protein content lower WBC pasty flavor, if not fully cooked Non-Meat Proteins : Non-Meat Proteins Soy isolate 90% protein, 2% restriction, salt is detrimental to hydration Soy concentrate 70%~85% protein, flavor problems Soy flour – TVP 50%~65% protein Chemical hazard - allergen Milk proteins Caseinate - binds fat & heat stable Whey proteins - add with fat Ca-reduced NFDM - good binder, half caseinate Chemical hazard - intolerances Slide 45: Soy Protein Products in Meat Slide 46: A Gel Made from Konjac Flour, Isolated Soy Protein, Trisodium Phosphates and Water Curing : Curing Function including: seasoning, texture color development, preservation Ingrediets: salt, nitrate and nitrite, sugar, isoascobic acid, sodium triphosphates Methods: dry salting, brine injection Add nitrite in chopping Meat color with pH : Meat color with pH Sodium nitrite : Sodium nitrite Cured color and flavor Pro- and antioxidant Prevents botulism Slide 51: Left: Meat chopped without nitrite Right: Meat chopped with nitrite Slide 52: Curing Reactions Phosphates : Phosphates Increase pH Increase WHC Antioxidant - chelates cations (fe++, ca++, etc.) Na+ and k+ salts - 0.5% Soapy flavors & color problems TetraNa+pyro - v. alkaline, but hard to issolve Na+tripoly – alkaline, most commonly used type. Na+hexameta - neutral Tripoly & hexameta- brines Na+acid pyro - cured color Size Reduction : Size Reduction Chopping http://www.kochequipment.com/site/equipment/product_info.php?id_product=350&id_industry=10&id_category=150 Grinding/mixing Slide 56: Dicer Flash: http://www.kochequipment.com/site/equipment/product_info.php?id_product=55&id_industry=1&id_category=146# Stuffing : Stuffing Flash http://www.kochequipment.com/site/equipment/product_info.php?id_product=11&id_industry=1&id_category=18# 石家庄博锐机械公司 http://www.boruijx.com.cn/ Slide 58: Themal Processing Two Purposes Enhancement of desirable texture, flavor and color development Reduction of microbial content Two Types Pasteurization: ＜100℃ Sterilization:＞100 ℃ Internal temperature Sterilization : Sterilization Slide 60: Canned Meat and Containers Slide 61: Pasteurization Slide 62: Stuffed Product Entering Continuous Oven Slide 63: Continuous Conveyor Oven Effects of Smoke : Effects of Smoke Color - carbonyls Flavor (surface) - phenols Antimicrobial - phenols Set skin - organic acids Polycyclic aromatic hydro-carbons (PAH) - high generation temperatures Liquid Smoke : Liquid Smoke Environmentally friendly Natural smoke is captured in acidic solution. Also considered natural Atomized or dipped Now very close to natural smoke taste/aroma Smoking Salmon http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/17.asp Chilling Ready-to-Eat Meat Products(Stabilization) : Chilling Ready-to-Eat Meat Products(Stabilization) Reduce pathogen growth Clostridium perfringens Prevent toxin production with spore formers Improve peelability, product appearance, yields. Cooling Methods : Cooling Methods Air chilling Holding coolers Blast chillers Intensive chilling Liquid chilling: water, brine, glycol Cryogenics Slide 68: “Intensive” Air Chiller Liquid (Brine) Chilling Slide 69: Brine Chiller Technology compound unit operations : Technology compound unit operations Meat Cut Cure Formulation Chopping Mixing Stuffing Cooking Smoking Refrigeration Ham Sausage as an exmaple Hot dog: http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/9.asp Surimi Making Flowchart : Surimi Making Flowchart 智利水产加工： http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTI1Nzk2NTc2.html Surimi extration http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTE2ODU0NDY4.html Surimi food http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTI1NTYxNjEy.html Surimi and Surimi Seafood, http://depositfiles.com/en/files/pmrsfqp83 Chicken Processing : Chicken Processing Fried Chicken Steak Chiken→Trim →Cut →Seasoning →Breading → Frying →Cooling →Freezing →Frozen http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/3.asp Smoked Whole Chiken Chiken→Trim→Seasoning →Curing → Smoking →Cooling →Vacuum Packing → Refrigeration Meat Products : Meat Products Chinese Products – Tour Supermarkets US Mest Products http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~meatsci/as555/555Au2008/555_02ProductTypes08.ppt Meat In Asia SE: Meat processing technology for small- to medium-scale producers http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ai407e/ai407e00.HTM Assignments: Tour supermarket meat product section, investigate the varieties of meat products and think that how they are made. Could you compound the unit operations for one or more meat products? Flashes for Meat Products : Flashes for Meat Products 西式肉品加工http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMzYyMzUwODA=.html Bacon: http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/25.asp Ham: http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/23.asp Sausage: http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/9.asp Canned fish http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/2.asp Chinese ham http://18.104.22.168/eol/jpk/video/rm.jsp?filepath=food/hum.rm&width=384&height=288 Assignment: View the flashes and draw technical flowsheet for each products. Summary : Summary Science tells us why, what underneath the operations Unit operation tells how to analyse a complex process, where we start. Technology tells us how to compound science and unit operation into a product and process. Engineering tells us what equipments used in a large scale production not only in lab Marketing tells us whether we think and practice accepted by comsumer and shall we survie and grow History and culture help us understand the above. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.