Introduction to Meat Science and Techonglogy : Introduction to Meat Science and Techonglogy Prof Zhao Zheng
Department of Food Sciecne and Engineering
Zhao Zheng@tust.edu.cn Slide 2: Self-drived, web-based course, Check BBS of Food Technology Pronciples regularly!
Meat processing http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~meatsci/as55502.html
Handbook of Food Product Manufacture http://depositfiles.com/en/files/4468639
Food Technology texbook(Chinese)
Lawrie’s meat science
Journal of Food Science
Journals of Meat Industry (Chinese) Resource for Meat Learning Free Download History of Meat Processing : History of Meat Processing “Wine pool, meat forest” means well developed wine processing and meat pickling and drying in Chinese Shang Dynasty.
Ham, salted meat are very popular in south China with a long history. Jianhua ham traced back to A.D. 618-907, Tang Dynasty.
Sausage - first product，got idea from intestines.
Homer’s Odyssey - 9th Century B.C.
Greek writers – Salami, Salamis, e. coast of Cyprus Latin salsus - salted meat Slide 4: European influence
Frankfurters –frankfort, germany
Wieners – vienna, Austria
Bologna - bologna, italy
Genoa salami – genoa, italy
Corned beef – old word “korn,” granular salt used to cure
North American influence
Hot dog & hamburger (in buns)
Jerky - native Americans Meat Morphology and Chemistry Three Mucles : Meat Morphology and Chemistry Three Mucles Skeletal muscles, mainly consumed and processed
Smooth muscles, stomac
Heart muscles，cardiac muscles Muscle Diagram : Muscle Diagram Connective tissues Myofibers Bundles Nerve Actin flilaments myofilament Muscle Components : Muscle Components Moisture – 60% to 72%
Protein – 10% to 20%
Fat – 4% to 22%
Ash - 1% Fat inside and around muscle tissues Moisture : Moisture ≥65% muscle composition
3.6 : 1 (moisture:protein ratio)
Enhances protein extraction,
Major yield factor
Muscles dry out with age, lose moisture
Water holding capacity (WHC), original+added in processing. Muscle Proteins : Muscle Proteins Contractile proteins
Sarco-plasmic or plasma proteins
Connective tissue proteins Thick filament, myosin Thin filament,
actin collagen Slide 10: Postmortem Effects on WHC Actomyosin formation lower WHC relax contraction Contractile proteins : Contractile proteins Salt-soluble proteins
Actin & myosin vs. Actomyosin
Prerigor vs. Postrigor Activity: Add 1g salt to 50g minced meat, and agitae for 5 mintes, what will happen and why? Messager for extraction of salt soluble protein Contractile proteins : Contractile proteins Denaturation:
By low (acidic) pH
Binds water & traps fat
Changes product texture
Help human digestion Slide 13: Protein chain Chain open Coagulate to network water fat Slide 14: Heat-induced aggregation of myosin *Yamamoto, 1990 Sarcoplasmic or Plasma Proteins : Sarcoplasmic or Plasma Proteins Water-soluble proteins
Purge, drip or blood
Consists of many proteins
Enzymes - with rigor and aging
Myoglobin - meat pigment Activity
Boiling meat in a beaker.
Observe a piece of defrozen meat.
Wash a piece of meat
Explain why Slide 16: Myoglobin Myoglobin : Myoglobin 95% of muscle iron
Oxidizes - color fades, Like metal rusting
Cured with nitrite Myoglobin Content of Selected Muscles : Myoglobin Content of Selected Muscles Find detailed explain in our BBS Connective Tissue Proteins : Connective Tissue Proteins Most abundant animal protein (e.G., Collagen)
Transmits force of contraction
Tough & salt insoluble
Three concentric tubes
Affects texture Connective Tissue Proteins : Connective Tissue Proteins Moist heat -softens
Dry heat - toughens
Heat - particles turn clear
Low pH - turn white
Functionality of finely chopped Connective tissues Fat : Fat Most variable component
A variety of fatty acids
Diets affect fatty acids
Saturated vs unsaturated - melting points
Development of rancidity Affecting processing What about our diet? Fat – important for: : Fat – important for: Flavor, Characteristic flavor of meat
Proper growth & development of children
Product cost reduction Without fat, all meats tast almost the same. Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry : Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry : Fatty Acids of Beef, Lamb, Pork and Poultry Oxidation of Fatty Acids : Oxidation of Fatty Acids Initiation:
Unsaturated fatty acids
O2, UV light, metal ions
Reactive free-radicals Propagation/autoxidation:
Free radicals + oxygen produce peroxides
Peroxides produce aldehydes & ketones (flavors) Termination & Block : Termination & Block Run out of unsaturated fatty acids
Block by addig antioxidants (before peroxides are formed),such as:
BHT, BHA, propylgallate, citric acid, nitrite, phosphates, and natural antioxidants (spices, etc.)
Warmed Over Flavors (WOF) Phospholipids coming in contact with iron & oxygen upon cooking of lean meat. Less reported in China. Meat Unit Operations : Meat Unit Operations Slaughter and rigor mortis, aging
Size reduction, mixing and emulsion
Curing & Fermentation
Thermal processing &Refrigeration Slaughter and Rigor Mortis : Slaughter and Rigor Mortis Animal Edible Muscle Tissue
Mucle Meat Slaughter and Rigor Mortis : Slaughter and Rigor Mortis Flashes about Slaughter : Flashes about Slaughter Cattle Slaughter http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/1.asp
Pig Slaughter http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/13.asp
Chicken Slaughter http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/4.asp Rigor Mortis : Rigor Mortis The process in converting muscle to meat.
The circulatory system will no longer deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscle cells.
The cells will continue to produce energy (ATP) by breaking down glycogen reserves, which produces lactic acid, dropping the pH to 5.2-5.6.
When cells can not produce more ATP the muscle contracts 1 last time. Prevents Actin and myosin filaments to slide over each other. Slide 33: Activity
Take an alive fish, such as carp, out of water.
Observe the toughness of fish body for every one hour and record the changes.
Explain the phonemna and make suggestion for traditional Chinese cooking. Cutting : Cutting Trim undesirables
Manual work with mechanical tools
Meat restructure Flash: Beef cutting http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/11.asp Slide 35: Mechanically Separated Pork being made from pork bones Formulation : Formulation Least cost formulation under the constraints of consumer acceptabilities and regulations. A typical problem of linear prgramming.
Ingredients apart from meat
Processing technology, flowsheet, equipments,etc. Spices, Seasonings and Flavorings : Spices, Seasonings and Flavorings Spices
natural plant parts
Seasonings and Flavorings
mixtures of spices
natural or artificial? MSG Taste : Taste Regions of the tongue
sweet – tip
salty –front sides
sour –rear sides
bitter –across rear of tongue Balance of Taste Sensations and Flavors : Balance of Taste Sensations and Flavors Better to balance taste sensations across the tongue, not confined to one area
Difficult to distinguish individual flavors
Provides a uniqueness that is difficult to copy Spice Characteristics : Spice Characteristics Mustard: Number one spice used in meat products.
Black/white pepper: Most important spice, because of its quick pungent flavor.
Red pepper: Used for its throat heat
Paprika: Used for coloring in some products.
Coriander: Used for its aromatic flavor.
Nutmet/Mace: Used for its pungent flavor.
Garlic: Used for its fat soluble flavor in beef and lamb products.
Chili: Used for its roasted flavor in Tex-Mex products.
Fennel: Used for its licorice flavor in Italian products.
Sage: Used in fresh pork products.
Ginger: Used for its warm bitter flavor. More important in meat products is its ability to minimize burping. Know More about Spices : Know More about Spices Food Info http://www.food-info.net/uk/index.htm
Encyclopedia of Foods http://rapidshare.com/files/107905681/Encyclopedia_of_Foods.pdf Binders & Extenders : Binders & Extenders Starches
native & modified
potato - gel temp./cook temp.
3 1/2% limit (WHC)
1.5% in hams
149ºF to dissolve
higher protein content
pasty flavor, if not fully cooked Non-Meat Proteins : Non-Meat Proteins Soy isolate
90% protein, 2% restriction, salt is detrimental to hydration
70%~85% protein, flavor problems
Soy flour – TVP 50%~65% protein
Chemical hazard - allergen Milk proteins
Caseinate - binds fat & heat stable
Whey proteins - add with fat
Ca-reduced NFDM - good binder, half caseinate
Chemical hazard - intolerances Slide 45: Soy Protein Products in Meat Slide 46: A Gel Made from Konjac Flour, Isolated Soy Protein, Trisodium Phosphates and Water Curing : Curing Function including: seasoning, texture color development, preservation
Ingrediets: salt, nitrate and nitrite, sugar, isoascobic acid, sodium triphosphates
Methods: dry salting, brine injection Add nitrite in chopping Meat color with pH : Meat color with pH Sodium nitrite : Sodium nitrite Cured color and flavor
Pro- and antioxidant
Prevents botulism Slide 51: Left: Meat
without nitrite Right: Meat
nitrite Slide 52: Curing Reactions Phosphates : Phosphates Increase pH
Antioxidant - chelates cations (fe++, ca++, etc.)
Na+ and k+ salts - 0.5%
Soapy flavors & color problems TetraNa+pyro - v. alkaline, but hard to issolve
Na+tripoly – alkaline, most commonly used type.
Na+hexameta - neutral
Tripoly & hexameta- brines
Na+acid pyro - cured color Size Reduction : Size Reduction Chopping http://www.kochequipment.com/site/equipment/product_info.php?id_product=350&id_industry=10&id_category=150 Grinding/mixing Slide 56: Dicer Flash: http://www.kochequipment.com/site/equipment/product_info.php?id_product=55&id_industry=1&id_category=146# Stuffing : Stuffing Flash http://www.kochequipment.com/site/equipment/product_info.php?id_product=11&id_industry=1&id_category=18#
石家庄博锐机械公司 http://www.boruijx.com.cn/ Slide 58: Themal Processing Two Purposes
Enhancement of desirable texture, flavor and color development
Reduction of microbial content Two Types
Sterilization:＞100 ℃ Internal temperature Sterilization : Sterilization Slide 60: Canned Meat and Containers Slide 61: Pasteurization Slide 62: Stuffed Product Entering
Continuous Oven Slide 63: Continuous Conveyor Oven Effects of Smoke : Effects of Smoke Color - carbonyls
Flavor (surface) - phenols
Antimicrobial - phenols
Set skin - organic acids
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-carbons (PAH) - high generation temperatures Liquid Smoke : Liquid Smoke Environmentally friendly
Natural smoke is captured in acidic solution. Also considered natural
Atomized or dipped
Now very close to natural smoke taste/aroma Smoking Salmon http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/17.asp Chilling Ready-to-Eat Meat Products(Stabilization) : Chilling Ready-to-Eat Meat Products(Stabilization) Reduce pathogen growth
Prevent toxin production with spore formers
Improve peelability, product appearance, yields. Cooling Methods : Cooling Methods Air chilling
Liquid chilling: water, brine, glycol
Cryogenics Slide 68: “Intensive” Air Chiller Liquid (Brine) Chilling Slide 69: Brine Chiller Technology compound unit operations : Technology compound unit operations Meat Cut Cure Formulation
Chopping Mixing Stuffing Cooking
Smoking Refrigeration Ham Sausage as an exmaple Hot dog: http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/9.asp Surimi Making Flowchart : Surimi Making Flowchart 智利水产加工： http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTI1Nzk2NTc2.html
Surimi extration http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTE2ODU0NDY4.html
Surimi food http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTI1NTYxNjEy.html
Surimi and Surimi Seafood, http://depositfiles.com/en/files/pmrsfqp83 Chicken Processing : Chicken Processing Fried Chicken Steak
Chiken→Trim →Cut →Seasoning →Breading → Frying →Cooling →Freezing →Frozen
Smoked Whole Chiken
Chiken→Trim→Seasoning →Curing → Smoking →Cooling →Vacuum Packing → Refrigeration Meat Products : Meat Products Chinese Products – Tour Supermarkets
US Mest Products http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~meatsci/as555/555Au2008/555_02ProductTypes08.ppt
Meat In Asia SE: Meat processing technology for small- to medium-scale producers http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ai407e/ai407e00.HTM Assignments: Tour supermarket meat product section, investigate the varieties of meat products and think that how they are made. Could you compound the unit operations for one or more meat products? Flashes for Meat Products : Flashes for Meat Products 西式肉品加工http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMzYyMzUwODA=.html
Canned fish http://www2.tust.edu.cn/shipinshuangyu/3/2.asp
Chinese ham http://188.8.131.52/eol/jpk/video/rm.jsp?filepath=food/hum.rm&width=384&height=288 Assignment: View the flashes and draw technical flowsheet for each products. Summary : Summary Science tells us why, what underneath the operations
Unit operation tells how to analyse a complex process, where we start.
Technology tells us how to compound science and unit operation into a product and process.
Engineering tells us what equipments used in a large scale production not only in lab
Marketing tells us whether we think and practice accepted by comsumer and shall we survie and grow
History and culture help us understand the above.