kidney

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ஜкι∂ηєуஜ:

ஜ к ι∂η єу ஜ

WHâT ¡§ K¡Ðñêy?:

WHâT ¡§ K¡Ðñêy? The kidneys are organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in most animals , including vertebrates and some invertebrates . They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes , maintenance of acid–base balance , and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood , and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder . In producing urine , the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium , and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water , glucose , and amino acids . Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases .

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Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum , the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries , and drain into the paired renal veins . Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter , itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder . Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases .

£0¢âT¡0ñ 0f â K¡Ðñêy :

£0¢âT¡0ñ 0f â K¡Ðñêy In humans the kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity , more specifically in the paravertebral gutter and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. There are two, one on each side of the spine . The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the right . The left kidney is approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3 , and the right slightly lower. The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver , the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen . Resting on top of each kidney is an adrenal gland . The upper (cranial) parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs , and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and the renal fascia . Each adult kidney weighs between 125 and 170 grams in males and between 115 and 155 grams in females.The left kidney is typically slightly larger than the right .

A ¢T §¢âñ ¡ñ wH¡¢H K¡Ðñêy§ ârê §H0wñ:

A ¢T §¢âñ ¡ñ wH¡¢H K¡Ðñêy§ ârê §H0wñ

STrµ¢Tµrê 0f â K¡Ðñêy:

STr µ¢ Tµrê 0f â K¡Ðñêy The kidney has a bean -shaped structure; each kidney has a convex and concave surface. The concave surface, the renal hilum , is the point at which the renal artery enters the organ, and the renal vein and ureter leave. The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule , which is itself surrounded by perinephric fat , renal fascia (of Gerota ) and paranephric fat . The anterior (front) border of these tissues is the peritoneum , while the posterior (rear) border is the transversalis fascia . The superior border of the right kidney is adjacent to the liver; and the spleen , for the left kidney. Therefore, both move down on inhalation . The kidney is approximately 11–14 cm in length, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick . The substance, or parenchyma , of the kidney is divided into two major structures: superficial is the renal cortex and deep is the renal medulla . Grossly, these structures take the shape of 8 to 18 cone-shaped renal lobes , each containing renal cortex surrounding a portion of medulla called a renal pyramid (of Malpighi ).

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1. Renal pyramid • 2. Interlobular artery • 3. Renal artery • 4. Renal vein 5. Renal hilum • 6. Renal pelvis • 7. Ureter • 8. Minor calyx • 9. Renal capsule • 10. Inferior renal capsule • 11. Superior renal capsule • 12. Interlobular vein • 13. Nephron • 14. Minor calyx • 15. Major calyx • 16. Renal papilla 17. Renal column

B£00Ð §µÞÞ£y:

B£00Ð §µ ÞÞ£y The kidneys receive blood from the renal arteries , left and right, which branch directly from the abdominal aorta . Despite their relatively small size, the kidneys receive approximately 20% of the cardiac output . Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries which penetrate the renal capsule and extend through the renal columns between the renal pyramids. The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli . The interstitum (or interstitium ) is the functional space in the kidney beneath the individual filters (glomeruli) which are rich in blood vessels . The interstitum absorbs fluid recovered from urine . Various conditions can lead to scarring and congestion of this area, which can cause kidney dysfunction and failure . After filtration occurs the blood moves through a small network of venules that converge into interlobular veins. As with the arteriole distribution the veins follow the same pattern, the interlobular provide blood to the arcuate veins then back to the interlobar veins which come to form the renal vein exiting the kidney for transfusion for blood.

3D-rêñÐêrêР¢0MÞµTêÐ T0M0grâÞHy, §H0w¡ñg rêñ⣠ârTêr¡ê§ âñÐ vê¡ñ§.:

3D-rêñÐêrêР¢0MÞµTêÐ T0M0grâÞHy, §H0w¡ñg rêñâ £ ârTêr¡ê § âñÐ vê¡ñ §.

H¡§T0£0gy :

H¡§T0£0gy The renal artery enters into the kidney at the level of first lumbar vertebra just below the superior mesenteric artery. As it enters the kidney it divides into branches: first the segmental artery, which divides into 2 or 3 lobar arteries, then further divides into interlobar arteries, which further divide into the arcuate artery which leads into the interlobular artery, which form afferent arterioles. The afferent arterioles form the glomerulus (network of capillaries closed in Bowman's capsule). From here, efferent arterioles leaves the glomerulus and divide into peritubular capillarieas , which drain into the interlobular veins and then into arcuate vein and then into interlobar vein, which runs into lobar vein, which opens into the segmental vein and which drains into the renal vein, and then from it blood moves into the inferior vena cava.

M¡¢r0§¢0Þ¡¢ ÞH0T0grâÞH 0f THê rêñ⣠Mêе££â:

M¡¢r0§¢0Þ¡¢ ÞH0T0grâÞH 0f THê rêñâ £ MêÐ µ££â

IññêrvâT¡0ñ :

IññêrvâT¡0ñ The kidney and nervous system communicate via the renal plexus , whose fibers course along the renal arteries to reach each kidney. Input from the sympathetic nervous system triggers vasoconstriction in the kidney, thereby reducing renal blood flow . The kidney also receives input from the parasympathetic nervous system , by way of the renal branches of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X); the function of this is yet unclear. Sensory input from the kidney travels to the T10-11 levels of the spinal cord and is sensed in the corresponding dermatome . Thus, pain in the flank region may be referred from corresponding kidney.

M¡¢r0§¢0Þ¡¢ ÞH0T0grâÞH 0f THê rêñ⣠¢0rTê¤:

M¡¢r0§¢0Þ¡¢ ÞH0T0grâÞH 0f THê rêñâ £ ¢0rTê¤

Fµñ¢T¡0ñ§ :

Fµñ¢T¡0ñ§ The kidney participates in whole-body homeostasis , regulating acid-base balance , electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume , and regulation of blood pressure . The kidney accomplishes these homeostatic functions both independently and in concert with other organs, particularly those of the endocrine system . Various endocrine hormones coordinate these endocrine functions; these include renin , angiotensin II , aldosterone , antidiuretic hormone , and atrial natriuretic peptide , among others. Many of the kidney's functions are accomplished by relatively simple mechanisms of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion, which take place in the nephron . Filtration, which takes place at the renal corpuscle , is the process by which cells and large proteins are filtered from the blood to make an ultrafiltrate that eventually becomes urine. The kidney generates 180 liters of filtrate a day, while reabsorbing a large percentage, allowing for the generation of only approximately 2 liters of urine. Reabsorption is the transport of molecules from this ultrafiltrate and into the blood. Secretion is the reverse process, in which molecules are transported in the opposite direction, from the blood into the urine.

Câµ§ê§ âñÐ SyMÞT0M§ 0f K¡Ðñêy Fâ¡£µrê:

Câ µ§ê§ âñÐ SyMÞT0M§ 0f K¡Ðñêy Fâ ¡£µ rê When the influent circulation of the blood gets diminished, the kidney stops its functioning that is known as hypoyolemia. An acute kind of dehydration could cause the vomiting, panic, agitation and diarrhea. This would lead further the damage of kidneys. When the liquid of the body gets contracted, the kidney would get damage slowly and slowly. Obstruction in the blood supply could cause the kidneys in the renal artery or vein damage. Some hidden tumor would expose in the function of the kidney that could later cause the damage of kidney. Some severe stones could also damage the function of kidneys. The diabetes that is not controlled could cause the kidney failure. Inadequately proscribed high blood pressure could damage the functions of kidneys. Constant glomerulonephritis would damage the kidneys.

K¡Ðñêy Trâñ§Þ£âñTâT¡0ñ:

K¡Ðñêy Trâñ§Þ£âñTâT¡0ñ The kidney transplantation is done by the benefactor of the kidney. By receiving a donating kidney, the doctors and scientists would research over the kidney transplantation. They diagnose various kinds of strategies that how a kidney should be transplanted in the diseased person body. For that they relate the donated kidney with the blood of the diseased for exploring out the genetic results. So they could transplant a kidney. The first kidney transplant centre was established in 1950 in the United States of America.

E¤¢rêT¡0ñ 0f wâ§Tê§ :

E¤¢rêT¡0ñ 0f wâ§Tê § The kidneys excrete a variety of waste products produced by metabolism . These include the nitrogenous wastes called " urea ", from protein catabolism , as well as uric acid , from nucleic acid metabolism. Formation of urine is also the function of the kidney. The concentration of nitrogenous wastes, in the urine of mammals and some birds, is dependent on an elaborate countercurrent multiplication system. This requires several independent nephron characteristics to operate: a tight hair pin configuration of the tubules, water and ion permeability in the descending limb of the loop, water impermeability in the ascending loop and active ion transport out of most of the ascending loop. In addition, countercurrent exchange by the vessels carrying the blood supply to the nephron is essential for enabling this function.

A¢¡Ð-ßâ§ê H0Mê0§T⧡§ :

A¢¡Ð- ßâ§ê H0Mê0§T⧡§ Two organ systems, the kidneys and lungs, maintain acid-base homeostasis, which is the maintenance of pH around a relatively stable value. The lungs contribute to acid-base homeostasis by regulating carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration. The kidneys have two very important roles in maintaining the acid-base balance: to reabsorb bicarbonate from urine, and to excrete hydrogen ions into urine.

O§M0£â£¡Ty rêgµ£âT¡0ñ :

O§M0£â£¡Ty rêg µ£âT¡0ñ Any significant rise in plasma osmolality is detected by the hypothalamus , which communicates directly with the posterior pituitary gland . An increase in osmolality causes the gland to secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in water reabsorption by the kidney and an increase in urine concentration. The two factors work together to return the plasma osmolality to its normal levels. ADH binds to principal cells in the collecting duct that translocate aquaporins to the membrane, allowing water to leave the normally impermeable membrane and be reabsorbed into the body by the vasa recta, thus increasing the plasma volume of the body. There are two systems that create a hyperosmotic medulla and thus increase the body plasma volume: Urea recycling and the 'single effect.' Urea is usually excreted as a waste product from the kidneys. However, when plasma blood volume is low and ADH is released the aquaporins that are opened are also permeable to urea. This allows urea to leave the collecting duct into the medulla creating a hyperosmotic solution that 'attracts' water. Urea can then re-enter the nephron and be excreted or recycled again depending on whether ADH is still present or not.

B£00Ð Þrꧧµrê rêgµ£âT¡0ñ :

B£00Ð Þrê §§µ rê rêg µ£âT¡0ñ Although the kidney cannot directly sense blood, long-term regulation of blood pressure predominantly depends upon the kidney. This primarily occurs through maintenance of the extracellular fluid compartment, the size of which depends on the plasma sodium concentration. Renin is the first in a series of important chemical messengers that make up the renin-angiotensin system . Changes in renin ultimately alter the output of this system, principally the hormones angiotensin II and aldosterone . Each hormone acts via multiple mechanisms, but both increase the kidney's absorption of sodium chloride , thereby expanding the extracellular fluid compartment and raising blood pressure. When renin levels are elevated, the concentrations of angiotensin II and aldosterone increase, leading to increased sodium chloride reabsorption, expansion of the extracellular fluid compartment, and an increase in blood pressure. Conversely, when renin levels are low, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels decrease, contracting the extracellular fluid compartment, and decreasing blood pressure.

C0ñ¢£µÐ¡ñg rêMârK§ :

C0ñ¢£µ Сñg rêMârK § Each and every part of our body is interconnected with the functions of kidneys. There are many symptoms and causes of the kidney’s failure but how far are we from the adopting the precautionary measures of the kidney damage? We do not use neat and clean water. The habit of smoking is a routine matter rather the exercising. The heavy food stuff is enchanted by us. Lack of awareness is spreading around just because of us. The people are indulging in the diseases of blood pressure, diabetes etc in the very little ages now a day. The sort of polluted atmosphere is alarming us at a very enormous level. Hence all kinds of stomach, brain, and kidney diseases’ have become the part of our life. Why is it happening? Why do not you understand the kidney’s threat? When do we implement ourselves in the precautions of kidney failure? Surely it is the time to think upon the faults of us.

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