INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG (IND)Tushar Premchandani, NMIMS, Shirpur : Tushar Premchandani 1 INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG (IND)Tushar Premchandani, NMIMS, Shirpur Introduction : 2 Tushar Premchandani Introduction An Investigational New Drug Application (IND) is a submission to the Food and Drug Administration requesting permission to initiate a clinical study of a new drug product.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires that all drugs have an approved marketing application (NDA, BLA, ANDA) before they can be shipped in interstate commerce. Introduction : 3 Tushar Premchandani The IND application allows a company to initiate and conduct clinical studies of their new drug product.
The IND application provides the FDA with the data necessary to decide whether the new drug and the proposed clinical trial pose a reasonable risk to the human subjects participating in the study. Introduction Introduction : 4 Tushar Premchandani The safety of the clinical trial subjects is always the primary concern of the FDA.
In later phases (Phase II and III), the FDA will also evaluate the study design in terms of demonstrating efficacy, but safety of the subjects is critical throughout the drug development process.
When preparing an IND, and throughout the drug development process, the primary goal of the sponsor should be to demonstrate to the FDA that the
The proposed trial, and the
Entire clinical development plan described in the IND
is designed to minimize risk to the trial subjects. Introduction When Do I Need an IND? : 5 Tushar Premchandani When Do I Need an IND? An IND is required any time you want to conduct a clinical trial of an unapproved drug
The Act further defines a new drug, in part, as “any drug the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling When Do I Need an IND? : 6 Tushar Premchandani An IND would be required to conduct a clinical trial if the drug is:
A new chemical entity Not approved for the indication under investigation In a new dosage form.
Being administered at a new dosage level.
In combination with another drug and the combination is not approved.
All clinical studies where a new drug is administered to human subjects, regardless of whether the drug will be commercially developed, require an IND. When Do I Need an IND? When You Don’t Need an IND? : 7 Tushar Premchandani When You Don’t Need an IND? An IND is not required to conduct a study if the drug:
Is not intended for human subjects, but is intended for in vivo testing or laboratory research animals (non clinical studies)
Is an approved drug and the study is within its approved indication for use. Pre-IND Meeting : 8 Tushar Premchandani Pre-IND Meeting A meeting between the sponsor and the FDA frequently is useful in resolving questions and issues raised during the preparation for an IND.
The FDA encourages such meetings to the extent that
They aid in the solution of scientific problems and
To the extent that the FDA has available resources. Pre-IND Meeting : 9 Tushar Premchandani A pre-IND meeting is considered a Type B meeting.
It is a “formal” meeting requiring a written request that includes,
A list of specific objectives.
List of specific questions, grouped by discipline. Pre-IND Meeting Pre-IND Meeting : 10 Tushar Premchandani Most issues and questions are usually related to the
Design of animal studies needed to initiate clinical trials also
The scope and design of the initial study in humans.
Type B meetings should be scheduled to occur within 60 days of the FDA’s receipt of the written request for the meeting. Pre-IND Meeting Pre-IND Meeting : 11 Tushar Premchandani A briefing document is required at least 4 weeks prior to the meeting.
The briefing document should provide
summary information relevant to the product and
supplementary information that the FDA can use to provide responses to the questions that have been identified by the sponsor for the IND submission.
There should be free, full, and open communication about the scientific or medical issue to be discussed during the meeting.
The meeting may be a face-to-face meeting or the FDA may prefer to have a telephone conference call to serve as the meeting. Pre-IND Meeting Pre-IND Meeting : 12 Tushar Premchandani Usually the attendance at the pre-IND meeting is multidisciplinary, involving the
FDA personnel in clinical pharmacology/toxicology,
At the conclusion of the meeting, there should be a review of all the issues, responses, and agreements.
An assigned individual from the FDA, usually a project manager, will prepare the minutes of the meeting. Pre-IND Meeting Pre-IND Meeting : 13 Tushar Premchandani There are other meetings that can be held during the IND phases of development, including an
End of Phase I meeting (generally for fast track products),
End of Phase II meeting, and
Pre-NDA or pre-BLA meeting. Pre-IND Meeting The Content and Format of an IND Application : 14 Tushar Premchandani The Content and Format of an IND Application The content and format of an initial IND is laid out in 21 CFR Part 312
Cover Sheet —312.23(a)(1)FDA Form 1571
Table of Contents —313.23(a)(2)
Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan —312.23(a)(3)
Investigator’s Brochure —312.23(a)(5)
Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6)
Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) The Content and Format of an IND Application : 15 Tushar Premchandani Pharmacology and Toxicology Information —312.23(a)(8)
Previous Human Experience —312.23 (a)(9)
Additional Information —312.23(a)(10)
Relevant Information —312.23(a)(11) The Content and Format of an IND Application The Content and Format of an IND Application : 16 Tushar Premchandani The form 1571 is a required part of the initial IND and every subsequent submission related to the IND application.
The 1571 serves as a cover sheet for IND submissions and provides the FDA
Basic information about the submission:
Name of the sponsor.
Name of the drug.
Type of submission.
Serial number, and
The contents of the application. The Content and Format of an IND Application The Content and Format of an IND Application : 17 Tushar Premchandani It is important to note that the FDA expects every submission, even the most routine correspondence, to be submitted with a completed form 1571 and have a serial number.
The FDA tracks all IND submissions based on serial numbers and will file them according to the serial number when received. The Content and Format of an IND Application The Content and Format of an IND Application : 18 Tushar Premchandani The 1571 form provides a section for the sponsor to state whether a contract research organization (CRO) will conduct any parts of the study and if any sponsor obligations will be transferred to the CRO.
If sponsor responsibilities will be transferred, a list of the obligations transferred and the name and address of the CRO must be attached to the 1571 form. The Content and Format of an IND Application The Content and Format of an IND Application : 19 Tushar Premchandani When signing the 1571, the sponsor is also making three important commitments to the FDA
The sponsor is committing not to initiate the clinical study until 30days after the FDA receives the IND, unless otherwise notified by the FDA, and not to begin or continue clinical studies covered by the IND if they are placed on clinical hold.
The sponsor is committing to ensure that an IRB will be responsible for initial and continuing review and approval of each study
The sponsor is committing to conduct the investigation in accordance with all other applicable regulatory requirements. The Content and Format of an IND Application Institutional Review Board (IRB) : 20 Tushar Premchandani Institutional Review Board (IRB) A board or committee formally designated by an institution to review and approve the initiation of biomedical research involving human subjects.
The primary purpose of the IRB is to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects. Slide 21: 21 Tushar Premchandani Slide 22: 22 Tushar Premchandani The Content and Format of an IND Application : 23 Tushar Premchandani These are significant commitments and the sponsor should be aware that
Signing the 1571 is more than a formality
Making a willfully false statement on the 1571 is a criminal offense. The Content and Format of an IND Application Table of Contents —13.23(a)(2) : 24 Tushar Premchandani Table of Contents —13.23(a)(2) This should be a comprehensive listing of the contents of the IND broken down by volume and page number.
The TOC should include all required
Other reference material.
TOC must be accurate and building the table should not be a last-minute task.
An accurate, well laid out TOC will allow the FDA reviewers to quickly find the information they need and ultimately speed review of the IND application. Table of Contents —13.23(a)(2) : 25 Tushar Premchandani Many sponsors begin planning the IND submission by laying out the table of contents first.
This allows the team to clearly see what information is required for the submission and how the document will be structured and
It allows the TOC to be updated as the application is being built. Table of Contents —13.23(a)(2) Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan — 312.23(a)(3) : 26 Tushar Premchandani Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan — 312.23(a)(3) This section should provide a brief, three- to four-page and provides
Overview of the investigational drug and
The sponsor’s investigational plan.
The goal of this section is simply
To provide a brief description of the drug
Lay out the development plan for the drug. Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan — 312.23(a)(3) : 27 Tushar Premchandani The introductory statement should begin with a description of the drug and the indication(s) to be studied and include the
Pharmacologic class of the compound,
The name of the drug and
All active ingredients,
The structural formula of the drug and
The dosage form and
Route of administration. Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan — 312.23(a)(3) Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan — 312.23(a)(3) : 28 Tushar Premchandani Introductory Statement and General Investigational Plan — 312.23(a)(3) If the drug has been previously administered to humans.
The introductory statement should include a brief summary of human clinical experience to date, focusing mainly on safety of the drug in previous studies
If the drug was withdrawn from investigation or marketing in any country for safety reasons,
The name of the country and
The reasons for withdrawal
should also be briefly discussed in the introductory statement. Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) : 29 Tushar Premchandani Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) The investigator’s brochure is a key document provided to each clinical investigator and the institutional review board at each of the clinical sites.
The IB presents, in summary form,
The key nonclinical,
CMC data that support the proposed clinical trial.
The IB provides the clinical investigators with the information necessary to understand
The rationale for the proposed trial and
To make an unbiased risk–benefit assessment of the appropriateness of the proposed trial. Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) : 30 Tushar Premchandani Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) the IB must contain the following information:
A brief summary of CMC information including
The physical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of the drug
The chemical name and chemical structure, if known.
It should also include a description of the formulation and how the drug is supplied and the storage and handling requirements. Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) : 31 Tushar Premchandani Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) A summary of all relevant nonclinical
Drug metabolism information generated to support human clinical studies.
It should include a tabular summary of
Each nonclinical study conducted,
Outlining the methodology used and
The results of each study. Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) : 32 Tushar Premchandani If human clinical studies have been conducted with the drug, a summary of information relating to safety and effectiveness should be presented,
It should also include
information from studies on the metabolism,
other Pharmacological activities. Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) : 33 Tushar Premchandani Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) A summary of data and guidance for the investigator in the management of subjects participating in the trial.
An overall discussion of the nonclinical and clinical data presented.
Discussion of the
Possible risks and adverse reactions associated with the investigational drug product, and
The specific tests, observations, and precautions that may be needed for the clinical trial. Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) : 34 Tushar Premchandani Investigator’s Brochure — 312.23(a)(5) It is important to remember that the IB is a living document.
Must be updated by the sponsor as new information becomes available from ongoing clinical and nonclinical studies. Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6) : 35 Tushar Premchandani Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6) A clinical protocol describes how a particular clinical trial is to be conducted.
The objectives of the study,
The trial design,
How subjects are selected and
How the trial is to be carried out.
The initial IND is required to have a clinical protocol for each planned study.
The IND regulations specifically allow Phase I protocols to be less detailed and more flexible than protocols for Phase II or III studies. Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6) : 36 Tushar Premchandani Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6) The regulations require any protocol submitted as part of an IND to contain the following elements.
A statement of the objectives and the purpose of the study.
Name, address, and qualifications (curriculum vitae) of each investigator and each sub investigator participating in the study;
Name and address of each clinical site
Name and address of each institutional review board responsible for reviewing the proposed study.
Study subject inclusion and exclusion criteria and
Estimate of the number of subjects to be enrolled in the study. Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6) : 37 Tushar Premchandani Clinical Protocol —312.23(a)(6) A description of the study design, control groups to be used, and a description of methods employed to minimize bias on the part of the subjects, investigators, and analysts.
The planned maximum dose, the duration of patient exposure to the drug, and the methods used to determine the doses to be administered.
A description of the measurements and observations to be made to achieve the study objectives.
A description of the clinical procedures and laboratory tests planned to monitor the effects of the drug in the subjects. Slide 38: 38 Tushar Premchandani Slide 39: 39 Tushar Premchandani Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) : 40 Tushar Premchandani Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) Key section of an IND describes
Manufacturing process, and
Control of the drug substance and drug product.
The CMC section must provide sufficient detail and information to demonstrate the
Potency of the drug product. Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) : 41 Tushar Premchandani Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) Safety concerns may include:
1. Product made with unknown or impure components.
2. Product has a chemical structure(s) of known or highly likely toxic.
3. Product does not remain chemically stable throughout the testing program.
4. Product has an impurity profile indicative of a potential health hazard or an impurity profile insufficiently defined to assess potential health hazard.
5. A poorly characterized master or working cell bank Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) : 42 Tushar Premchandani Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) The FDA requires that any drug product intended for administration to humans be manufactured in conformance with cGMP.
Adherence to GMP provides a minimum level of control over the manufacturing process and final drug product and helps to ensure the
Potency of the clinical trial material. Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) : 43 Tushar Premchandani Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Information —312.23(a)(7) The regulations require the CMC section of an IND to contain the following sections.
Information on the drug substance in the form of a summary report
Information on any placebo that will be utilized in the proposed clinical study. This should include a brief written description of the composition, manufacture, and control of the placebo.
Copies of all proposed product labels and any other proposed labeling that will be provided to the investigators.
A claim for categorical exclusion from an environmental assessment. Pharmacology and Toxicology Information — 312.23(a)(8) : 44 Tushar Premchandani Pharmacology and Toxicology Information — 312.23(a)(8) The decision to proceed to the initial administration of the investigational drug to humans must include the careful conduct and review of the data from nonclinical in vivo and in vitro studies.
These data must provide a good level of confidence that the new drug product is reasonably safe for administration to human subjects at the planned dosage levels.
The pharmacology and toxicology section of the IND includes the nonclinical safety data that the sponsor generated to conclude that the new drug is reasonably safe for clinical study. Pharmacology and Toxicology Information — 312.23(a)(8) : 45 Tushar Premchandani Pharmacology and Toxicology Information — 312.23(a)(8) The amount and type of nonclinical data needed to support a new drug product depends on the
Class of the new drug,
The duration of the proposed clinical trials and
The patient population that will be exposed to the drug. Pharmacology and Toxicology Information — 312.23(a)(8) : 46 Tushar Premchandani Pharmacology and Toxicology Information — 312.23(a)(8) The following nonclinical safety studies are required before initiating Phase I studies and the results of these studies must be included in the IND
Safety pharmacology studies (often conducted as part of the toxicity studies).
Single dose and repeat dose toxicity studies (duration of the repeat dose studies should equal or exceed the duration human clinical trials).
Genotoxicity studies (in vitro studies evaluating mutations and chromosomal damage).
Reproduction toxicity studies (nonclinical animal studies conducted to reveal any effects the investigational drug may have on mammalian reproduction).
Other supplementary studies may be needed if safety concerns are identified. Previous Human Experience —312.23 (a)(9) : 47 Tushar Premchandani Previous Human Experience —312.23 (a)(9) This section should contain an integrated summary report of all previous human studies and experiences with the drug.
The summary should focus on presenting data from previous trials that are relevant to the safety of the proposed investigation which includes
PK and PD data,
Observed adverse event profile in previous studies, or other experiences. Additional Information —312.23(a)(10) : 48 Tushar Premchandani Additional Information —312.23(a)(10) This section is used to present information on special topics.
Drug dependence and abuse potential.
Pediatric studies. Any plans the sponsor has for assessing the safety and effectiveness of the drug in the pediatric population.
Other information. Any other relevant information that might aid in the evaluation of the proposed clinical investigations. Relevant Information —312.23(a)(11) : 49 Tushar Premchandani Relevant Information —312.23(a)(11) Any information specifically requested by the FDA that is needed to review the IND application. Other Important Information about the Format, Content and Submission of an IND : 50 Tushar Premchandani Other Important Information about the Format, Content and Submission of an IND For clinical studies that will be submitted as part of an NDA or BLA, IND sponsors must collect financial disclosure information from each investigator or sub investigator who is directly involved in the treatment or evaluation of clinical trial subjects.
The sponsor may also reference a drug master file (DMF) in the IND application that contains important information necessary to complete review of the IND.
Reports or journal articles in a foreign language must be accompanied by a complete and accurate English translation.
Each IND submission must include a four-digit serial number. Other Important Information about the Format, Content and Submission of an IND : 51 Tushar Premchandani The FDA requires sponsors to submit the original and two copies of all IND submissions, including the initial IND application and any amendments, correspondence, or reports.
The FDA can request that a sponsor submit additional copies of a particular submission at any time.
The initial IND and all subsequent submissions more than one page in length should be fully paginated, including all appendices and attachments. Other Important Information about the Format, Content and Submission of an IND The FDA Review of the IND : 52 Tushar Premchandani The FDA Review of the IND Once the IND is stamped as received, it is sent to the review division within CDER or CBER
Once the IND arrives at the Review Division, it is critically evaluated by several reviewers of
Pharmacology/toxicology sections The FDA Review of the IND : 53 Tushar Premchandani All these areas review the data submitted with the primary purpose to ensure appropriate safety of the individuals who will be enrolled in the study
Once an IND is submitted, the study cannot be initiated until a period of 30 days has passed
If there are any major issues relating to the safety of the volunteers or patients in the proposed study, the FDA can institute a “clinical hold.” The FDA Review of the IND The FDA Review of the IND : 54 Tushar Premchandani The FDA Review of the IND A clinical hold may be either a
“complete clinical hold” — a delay or suspension of all clinical work requested under an IND, or a
“partial clinical hold” — a delay or suspension of only part of the clinical work (e.g., a specific protocol or part of a protocol) IND Annual Reports : 55 Tushar Premchandani IND Annual Reports The IND regulations require IND sponsors to submit an annual report that provides the FDA with a brief update on the progress of all investigations included in the IND.
The annual report must contain the following information:
Individual study information
The general investigational plan for the coming year.
If the investigator brochure was modified during the year, a list of the changes along with a copy of the new brochure. IND Annual Reports : 56 Tushar Premchandani A listing of any significant foreign marketing developments with the drug, e.g., approval in another country or withdrawal or suspension of marketing approval. IND Annual Reports CLASSIFICATION of INDs : 57 Tushar Premchandani CLASSIFICATION of INDs INDs can be classified on four dimensions:
Commercial / Noncommercial,
Standard / Emergency,
Paper / Electronic,
Original / 505(b)(2). Commercial and Non commercial INDs : 58 Tushar Premchandani Commercial and Non commercial INDs Commercial INDs (those intended to lead to eventual production and marketing of a drug) are subject to greater scrutiny and review than INDs submitted by universities, research laboratories, and other not - for - profit organizations.
For the noncommercial organizations, IND review tends to focus on the study design and the role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Emergency INDs : 59 Tushar Premchandani Emergency INDs Emergency INDs (often supplements to or amendments of standard INDs) receive priority review and accelerated consideration.
As supplements, emergency INDs are generally abbreviated formats referencing the original IND (with a newly filed 1571 form).
Most often, they represent corrections or modifications in the experimental design, chemistry, and/or control of the new drug. Electronic and Paper INDs : 60 Tushar Premchandani Electronic and Paper INDs Currently, most INDs are submitted in paper form, often accompanied by an electronic disk with hyperlinks.
Purely electronic submissions are still rare, in large part because of a lack of standardization and electronic sophistication on the part of the FDA.
There is currently a Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) test underway.
It is likely that CDISC will emerge as a common electronic submission standard for INDs, New Drug Applications (NDAs), and Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) over the next three to five years . Original and 505(b)2 INDs : 61 Tushar Premchandani Original and 505(b)2 INDs The 505(b)2 provision allows the submission of a IND and supporting submissions (such as an IND application ) in situations in which some or all of the supporting data come from a source or sources outside of the applicant organization.
All supporting data come from studies conducted by the applicant (or the applicant ’ s agents) or from studies to which the applicant has right of reference (and access to raw data and analyses) Original and 505(b)2 INDs : 62 Tushar Premchandani Original and 505(b)2 INDs Outside sources are generally of two types.
Published literature , generally peer reviewed, in which public access to the conclusions, results of analysis, and summary of data
Agency findings reporting the FDA ’ s analytical conclusions of drug safety and/or effectiveness. These findings are usually the result of prior review of supporting data related to the drug in question. The Protocol Amendment : 63 Tushar Premchandani The Protocol Amendment A protocol amendment is submitted to the FDA when a
sponsor wants to initiate a new clinical study that is not described in the existing IND or
When the sponsor makes changes to an existing protocol including adding a new investigator to a trial.
New protocols are submitted
When clinical development of the drug advances to the next phase, e.g., from Phase I to Phase II, or
When an additional study is needed during the same phase of development. The Protocol Amendment : 64 Tushar Premchandani The Protocol Amendment A protocol amendment for a new protocol must include a copy of the new protocol and a brief description of the most clinically significant differences between the new protocol and previous protocols.
When submitting a new protocol to an active IND, the sponsor may initiate the study once the IRB has approved the protocol and it has been submitted to the FDA. The Protocol Amendment : 65 Tushar Premchandani The Protocol Amendment A protocol amendment is also required if a sponsor makes significant changes to an existing protocol.
For Phase I protocols an amendment is required if the changes may affect the safety of the subjects participating in the study.
Other modifications that do not affect the safety of the subjects should be submitted in the IND annual report and not in a protocol amendment. The Protocol Amendment : 66 Tushar Premchandani The Protocol Amendment The IND regulations provide the following examples of changes that would require a protocol amendment:
An increase in drug dosage or duration of exposure of the subjects to the drug beyond that listed in the current protocol
A significant increase in the number of subjects participating in the trial
A change in the design of the protocol, such as adding or dropping a control group
Adding a new test procedure to monitor for, or reduce the risk of, an adverse event.
Eliminating a test intended to monitor safety The Protocol Amendment : 67 Tushar Premchandani The Protocol Amendment The IND regulations allow a sponsor to immediately implement a change to a protocol if the change is intended to eliminate an immediate hazard to the clinical trial subjects.
A protocol amendment is required when a new investigator or subinvestigator is added to conduct the clinical trial at a new or an existing site. Information Amendments : 68 Tushar Premchandani Information Amendments Information amendments are used to submit important information to the IND that is not within the scope of a protocol amendment, annual report, or IND safety report.
An information amendment may include
New toxicology or pharmacology information,
Final study reports for completed nonclinical or other technical studies,
New CMC information,
Notice of discontinuation of a clinical study, or
Any other information important to the IND. More Information About INDs : 69 Tushar Premchandani More Information About INDs www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/lawtoc.htm