Inprovement in food resources

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IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES:

IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES CLASS : IX SUBJECT: SCIENCE NAME OF TEACHER : Tushar Joshi

Why food is necessary?:

Why food is necessary? For survival. For growth and development For maintenance. For repairing of worn out parts. It protect us from various diseases. It supply us protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, roughage and water.

Crop production:

Crop production To produce high yield per unit area of land which can be done by good manuring, best irrigation system, best seed (HYV), and using scientific agricultural technique in called crop production .

Need for increasing food production :

Need for increasing food production Our population is more than one billion and it is still growing. We will need more than a billion tones of grain every year to feed this growing population. Since increasing the area of land for cultivation is limited, it is necessary to increase the production efficiency of crops and livestock.

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The production efficiency of crops and livestock can be increased by adopting scientific management practices to improve crop yield, undertaking mixed farming, intercropping, and integrated farming practices like combining agriculture with livestock, poultry, fisheries, bee-keeping etc.

Different types of crops ::

Different types of crops : Cereals like rice, wheat, maize, millets, sorghum etc. provide us carbohydrates. Pulses like peas, beans, grams, lentils etc. provide us proteins. Oil seeds like ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard, linseed, sunflower etc. provide us fats. Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us vitamins and minerals along with small amounts of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Fodder crops like berseem, oats or Sudan grass are grown as food for livestock.

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WHEAT CROP

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RICE

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GRAM

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LENTILS

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MUSTARD

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GROUND NUT

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GROUNT NUT

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VEGETABLES

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STRAW BERRY

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POMEGRANATE

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SPICES

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SPICES

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BERSEEM PLANT : USED AS FODDER

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SUDAN GRASS: USED AS FODDER

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Different crops require different climatic conditions, temperature and duration of sunlight (photoperiods). Kharif crops :These are crops grown during the rainy season from June to October like paddy, soya bean, maize, pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, cotton etc. Rabi crops : These are crops grown during winter season from November to April like wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed etc.

Improvement in crop yield :-:

Improvement in crop yield :- Crop yield can be improved by three main activities. They are :- Crop variety improvement Crop production improvement Crop protection management Crop variety improvement : Crop variety improvement is done by selecting good varieties of crops. This is done by hybridization. Hybridization is the crossing between genetically dissimilar plants to obtain crops having useful characteristics like disease resistance, product quality , response to fertilizers and high yields.

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Hybridization may be intervarietal (between different varieties, inter specific (between different species of the same genus) or inter generic (between different genera). Another way of improving crop variety is by introducing a gene to obtain the desired characteristic. This produces genetically modified crops.

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HYBRIDIZATION

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Crop variety improvement is done for the following : Higher yield : To increase productivity of crop per acre. Biotic and a biotic resistance :To increase resistance of crops to biotic factors like insects, diseases etc. and a biotic factors like draught, salinity, heat, cold etc. Change in maturity duration : To reduce the duration between sowing and harvesting so that farmers can grow multiple crops during the year. Wider adaptability :To grow crops in different climatic conditions. Desirable agronomic characters : Characters like tallness and more branching are useful for fodder crops and dwarfness (shortness) is desirable for cereal crops.

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TALL PLANT

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TALL AND DWARF PLANT

Crop production management:

Crop production management Crop production management includes : a) Nutrient management b) Irrigation and c) Cropping management. Nutrient management : Plants get nutrients from air, water and soil. There are sixteen nutrients required by plants for their proper growth. Air supplies oxygen and carbon dioxide, water supplies hydrogen and the remaining thirteen nutrients are obtained from the soil.

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Among the sixteen nutrients required by plants, six are required in large quantities and are called macro nutrients. The macro nutrients are : nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and Sulphur.These are required by plants in large amount. The other seven are required in small quantities and are called micro nutrients. Soil can be enriched by supplying nutrients in the form of manures and fertilizers. The micro nutrients are : iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine. These are required by plants in small amount.

Criteria for essentiality of nutrients:

Criteria for essentiality of nutrients In the absence of element plant will not complete its life cycle. The requirement of the element must be specific and cannot be replaced by other element. There is correlation between mineral and plant metabolism.

Manure:

Manure Manure is prepared by the decomposition of plant and animal waste. It contains organic matter and nutrients. It helps to increase soil fertility. It also helps to reduce use of fertilizers and recycle farm waste and protects the environment. There are two main types of manures. They are compost and green manure. Compost : It is prepared by the decomposition of plant and animal waste in compost pits. Compost prepared by using earthworms is called vermi-compost. Compost is rich in organic matter and nutrients.

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COMPOST

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VERMICOMPOST

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Green manure : Before sowing seeds in fields, some green plants like sun hemp, gaur etc. are mixed in the soil by ploughing. These plants turn into green manure which makes the soil rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. The green manure crops are turned into the field in tender stage (6-8 weeks) only. These crops should be completely decomposed before sowing of next crop. Fertilizers : Fertilizers are chemical substances made commercially. They supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and helps to increase crop yield. Fertilizers should be used only in required amounts. Excessive use of fertilizers can reduce soil fertility and also cause water pollution.

Types of fertilizers:

Types of fertilizers Nitrogenous fertilizer: e.g. Urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate etc. Phosphatic fertilizer: e.g. Ammonium phosphate, super phosphate, calcium dihydrogen phosphate . Potasic fertilizer: e.g. Potassium sulphate, potassium nitrate, potassium chloride. Complex fertilizer: e.g. Nitro phosphate, ammonium phosphate, urea ammonium phosphate.

Differences between manure and fertilizer:

Differences between manure and fertilizer MANURE FERTILIZER Biological in origin. Chemical in origin. Improve the texture of soil. Do not improve the texture of soil. Increases the water holding capacity. Do not increases the water holding capacity. Obtained by slow decomposition of plant residue and animal wastes. Obtained commercially by combining different elements. Not nutrient specific. Nutrient specific. It is sparingly soluble in water. It is readily soluble in water.

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MANURE FERTILIZER Slowly absorbed by the plants. Readily absorbed by the plants. Bulky and voluminous. Compact and concentrated. Not easy to transport, handle and use. It is easy to transport , handle and use. Cheaper. Costlier. Biodegradable. Non biodegradable. Eco friendly and do not causes pollution. Not eco friendly and causes water and soil pollution. Do not kill useful organisms. It may kill useful organisms. It do not change acidity or alkalinity of soil. It may change acidity of alkalinity of soil.

Organic farming:

Organic farming It is a farming system in which there is minimal or no use of chemicals as fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides etc. In this case there is a maximum input of organic manures, recycled farm-wastes, use of bio agents such as culture of blue green algae in the preparation of biofertilizers, neem leaves or turmeric specially in grain storage as biopesticides etc.

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GREEN MANURE

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FERTILIZER

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UREA

Irrigation :

Irrigation The supply of water to the crops is called irrigation. Water is necessary for the proper growth of plants and helps to increase crop yield. Different kinds of irrigation systems are used to supply water to crop field or agricultural land. They are wells, canals, rivers, tanks, check dams etc.

Efficiency of irrigation can be increased by::

Efficiency of irrigation can be increased by: Selecting appropriate crop and cropping system. Application of optimum quantity of water at appropriate time. Keeping weeds under control. Time scheduling in operation, Controlling pests.

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Wells : There are two types of wells called dug wells and tube wells. In dug wells water is collected from water bearing strata. In tube wells water is collected from deeper strata. Canals : In this system, canals receive water from one or more reservoirs or rivers. The main canal is distributed into branch canals and branch canal into distributaries which irrigate the field. River lift systems : In this system water is lifted from rivers to irrigate fields close to rivers. It is more useful in those areas where canals flow is insufficient or irregular due to inadequate water release. Tanks : These are small storage reservoirs which store the run off of smaller catchment areas and supply water to fields. Check dams : These are used to stop rain water from flowing away and helps to increase groundwater levels and reduce soil erosion .

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Main canal RIVER Branch canal Branch canal Distributaries

Cropping patterns :

Cropping patterns Different ways of growing crops are used for maximum benefit. These include mixed cropping, inter-cropping and crop rotation. Mixed cropping : It is growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same field. E.g. :- wheat + gram, wheat + mustard, groundnut + sunflower , soya bean + pigeon pea, maize + urd bean, cotton + mung bean. This reduces the risk even if one crop fails.

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MIXED CROPPING

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Inter-cropping : It is growing of two or more crops simultaneously in the same field in definite row pattern.E.g. :- maize + soya bean, millet + cow pea ,bajra + lobia etc. Crops with different nutrient requirements are selected. This helps in better use of nutrients and prevents spreading of diseases to all plants of the same crop. It save time and labour of farmer. Farmers can harvest and thresh both the crops separately. Crop rotation : It is growing different crops in the same field in succession. Growing leguminous crops after growing cereal crops helps to increase soil fertility. If crop rotation is done properly, two or three crops can be grown in a year profitably. It helps in weed control and also improve the fertility of soil. It also save lot of nitrogenous fertilizers.

Selection of crop for rotation criteria:

Selection of crop for rotation criteria Availability of moisture through rain or irrigation. Nutrient status of soil. Availability of inputs ( fertilizers, pesticides, manpower, machine power). Duration of crop: short or long. Marketing and processing factors.

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INTER CROPPING

Crop protection management :

Crop protection management Crops in the field are damaged by weeds, insect pests and diseases. Weeds are unwanted, or uneconomical plants which grow in the crop field. E.g. Xanthium( gokhroo), Parthenium(gajar ghas), Cyperinus rotundus( motha ), wild sorghum ( jangali jowar), chenopodium (bathua) etc. They compete with the crop for food, space and sunlight and use nutrients and reduce crop yield. Insects and pests causes damage to the root, stem and leaves, suck cell sap and bore into stems and fruits.E.g. stalk borer, locust. They can reduce crop yield.

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Diseases in plants are caused by pathogens like virus, bacteria and fungi and reduces crop yield. They can be transmitted through soil, water, and air. Bacteria: late blight of potato Fungi: rust and smut diseases. Virus: Tobacco mosaic virus.

Control of weeds :

Control of weeds By mechanical method: uprooting with hands, removing by harrow or towel, removed by ploughing and burning, removed by interculture. By cultural method: Timely sowing of crops, proper seed bed preparation, inter cropping, crop rotation. By chemical method: Spraying herbicides, weedicides.E.g. atrazine, 2,4,D etc. By biological method: Prickly pear weed is control by cochineal insect.

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Storage of grains: The factors responsible for the damage and loss of grains are biotic factors like bacteria, fungi, insects, rodents etc. and abiotic factors like moisture and temperature in the place of storage. Before storage, the grains are cleaned and dried in sunlight to remove moisture and the storage places are fumigated to kill pests.

Animal husbandry :

Animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the scientific management of animal livestock including their feeding, breeding and disease control. Four aspects of animal husbandry are feeding, heeding, breeding, weeding. Animal farming includes cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish farming. Cattle farming : Cattle farming is done for two main purposes. They are for milk production and farm labour. Milk producing females are called milch animals and those used for farm labour ( tilling, carting, irrigation, threshing etc.) are called draught animals.

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Milk production depends on the duration of the lactation period , the period of milk production after the birth of the calf. Milk production can be increased by increasing the lactation period. Foreign breeds like Jersy and Brown Swiss have long lactation periods and local breeds like Red Sindhi and Sahiwal are resistant to diseases. They can be cross-bred to get animals with both the qualities.

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Cattle shelter should be clean and well ventilated with sloping floors for easy cleaning. Cattle feed should include roughage containing mainly fiber and concentrates containing protein and other nutrients. Cattle disease are caused by parasites, bacteria and virus. External parasites cause skin diseases. Internal parasites like worms affect stomach and intestine and flukes damage the liver. Vaccinations are given to protect from viral and bacterial diseases.

Breeds of cow:

Breeds of cow Local breeds of cow : Red sindhi, Sahiwal. Exotic breed of cow : Jersey, Brown Swiss,karan Swiss, Karan fries.

Food for cattle:

Food for cattle Roughage ( voluminous and having less nutrient value) It may be dry(less moisture content e.g. husk, straw) or succulent ( more moisture content e.g. green grass, small twigs). Concentrates ( Concentrated and having more nutritive value. E.g. oil cakes, smashed grains.

Prevention of animal diseases:

Prevention of animal diseases Animal should be kept in good shelter. Should provide nutritive food and clean drinking water. The animal should get regular bathing. The animals having any disease should be kept isolated. Vaccinated. Spraying of insecticides in their shelter. The rats should be kept away from the shelter. The animals should be treated gently and not frightened.

Poultry farming :

Poultry farming Poultry farming is done for egg production and chicken meat. Improved poultry breeds are developed to produce layers for eggs and broilers for meat. Cross-breeding between Indian varieties like Aseel and foreign varieties like Leghorn is done to develop new varieties. For good production of poultry birds they are given proper nutrition and kept in hygienic conditions and proper temperature conditions. Broiler chickens are fed with vitamin and protein rich feed for better growth. Poultry fowls are affected by diseases caused by virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites. They are protected from diseases by proper sanitation, spraying disinfectants and vaccination.

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LEGHORN

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Aseel

Fish production (Pisciculture):

Fish production ( Pisciculture) Fish is a source of animal protein in our food. There are two ways of obtaining fish. They are from natural sources called capture fishing and from fish farming called culture fishery. The water source of fishes can be sea water (marine) or fresh water like rivers, ponds, lakes etc. Marine fisheries : The popular marine fish varieties are pomphret, mackerel, tuna, sardines etc. They are caught by fishing nets from boats. Some marine fishes are farmed in sea water. These include prawns, mullets, Perl spots, mussels, oysters etc. We get pearls from oysters. Inland fisheries : Culture fishery is done in freshwater and brackish water where sea water and fresh water mix together. Sometimes fish culture is done in combination with paddy crop in the field. This is called composite fish culture. The common fishes in inland fish farms are rohu, catla, mrigal, grass carp, silver carp, common carp etc.

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MARINE FISHES

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ILAND FISHES

Bee-keeping (Apiculture) :

Bee-keeping ( Apiculture) Bee-keeping is done to obtain honey and wax. Honey is used as a source of energy and also has medicinal uses. Wax is used in medicinal preparations and for making polishes. The local varieties of bees used for honey production are the Indian bee, Rock bee and Little bee. An Italian variety of bee is also being used for large scale production of honey. The bees collect nectar from flowers and is converted into honey in the bee hives. Bees are artificially grown in apiaries and the honey is extracted by machine called honey extractors .

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BEE HIVE

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BEE HIVE

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APIARIES

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HONEY EXTRACTOR

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HONEY COMB

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THANKS

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