VALVES

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Presentation Transcript

VALVES : 

VALVES

WHAT IS A VALVE? : 

WHAT IS A VALVE? IS THIS A VALVE ?

WHAT DOES IT DO? : 

WHAT DOES IT DO?

WHAT DOES IT DO? : 

WHAT DOES IT DO? START / STOP FLOW !!

WHAT DOES IT DO? : 

WHAT DOES IT DO? START / STOP FLOW !! CONTROL FLOW RATE !!

WHAT DO THESE VALVES (!) DO? : 

WHAT DO THESE VALVES (!) DO?

THEY : 

THEY CONTROL THE DIRECTION OF FLOW.

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS : 

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS A Valve is any device used mainly to: START & STOP A FLOW CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW CONTROL FLOW RATE CHANGE THE PRESSURE OF FLUID

Control Valves : 

Control Valves

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS : 

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS A Valve is any device used mainly to: START & STOP A FLOW CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW CONTROL FLOW RATE CHANGE THE PRESSURE OF FLUID

Control Valves : 

Control Valves To START & STOP A FLOW Are called ON/OFF VALVES OR SHUT OFF VALVES.

Control Valves : 

Control Valves ON/OFF VALVES

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS : 

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS A Valve is any device used mainly to: START & STOP A FLOW CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW CONTROL FLOW RATE CHANGE THE PRESSURE OF FLUID

Control Valves : 

Control Valves To CHANGE DIRECTION OF A FLOW Are called DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES (DC VALVES)

Control Valves : 

Control Valves ON/OFF VALVES 2. DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS : 

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS A Valve is any device used mainly to: START & STOP A FLOW CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW CONTROL FLOW RATE CHANGE THE PRESSURE OF FLUID

Control Valves : 

Control Valves To CONTROL THE FLOW RATE Are called FLOW CONTROL VALVES

Control Valves : 

Control Valves ON/OFF VALVES DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES FLOW CONTROL VALVES

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS : 

IN PNEUMATICS & HYDRAULICS A Valve is any device used mainly to: START & STOP A FLOW CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW CONTROL FLOW RATE CHANGE THE PRESSURE OF FLUID

Control Valves : 

Control Valves To CONTROL THE PRESSURE OF FLUID Are called PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES

Control Valves : 

Control Valves ON/OFF VALVES DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES FLOW CONTROL VALVES PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES THERE ARE OTHER SPECIAL VALVES & COMBINATIONS OF ABOVE.

ON/OFF VALVES : 

ON/OFF VALVES ALL VALVES CAN BE USED ON ANY FLUID AIR WATER GAS STEAM VACCUUM OIL

PORTS (CONNECTING POINTS) : 

PORTS (CONNECTING POINTS) THIS HAS 2 PORTS 1. INLET PORT (PRESSURE PORT) & 2. OUTLET PORT

POSITIONS (POSSIBLE STATES) : 

POSITIONS (POSSIBLE STATES) THIS HAS 2 POSITIONS 1. OFF (PORT 1 NOT CONNECTED TO PORT 2) & ON (PORT 1 CONNECTED TO PORT 2)

2 PORT/2 POSITION VALVE : 

2 PORT/2 POSITION VALVE P PORT THIS IS CALLED A 2 / 2 VALVE. 2 PORT / 2 POSITION VALVE A PORT

2 PORT/2 POSITION VALVE : 

2 PORT/2 POSITION VALVE P PORT THIS IS CALLED A 2 / 2 VALVE. 2 PORT / 2 POSITION VALVE. ITS SYMBOL IS: POSITION 1 A P A PORT POSITION 2

SYMBOL : 

SYMBOL $ €

VALVE SYMBOL : 

VALVE SYMBOL CONSISTS OF THE BLOCK –ONE BLOCK FOR EACH POSITION

2 POSITION VALVE : 

2 POSITION VALVE WILL HAVE 2 BLOCKS 3 POSITION VALVE WILL HAVE 3 BLOCKS

POSITION OF PORTS : 

POSITION OF PORTS A (A,B ETC- OUTPUTS) P (P, R,S,T—INLET EXHAUST & TANK CONNECTIONS)

INTERNAL ARRANGEMENTIN EACH BLOCK : 

INTERNAL ARRANGEMENTIN EACH BLOCK T – MEANS BLOCKED -- MEANS FLOW.

THE BASIC SYMBOL : 

THE BASIC SYMBOL A P IN ONE POSITION OF VALVE, P & A ARE BLOCKED IN ANOTHER POSITION P FLOWS TO A

THE ACTUATOR : 

THE ACTUATOR HOW THE VALVE IS changed FROM ONE POSITION TO ANOTHER SPRING. SOLENOID MANUAL PILOT (AIR)

THE DEFAULT POSITIONWHEN NOT ACTUATED : 

THE DEFAULT POSITIONWHEN NOT ACTUATED A P IN DEFAULT POSITION P & A ARE BLOCKED CALLED AS A NORMALLY CLOSED VALVE

THE DEFAULT POSITIONWHEN NOT ACTUATED : 

THE DEFAULT POSITIONWHEN NOT ACTUATED A P IN DEFAULT POSITION P & A ARE CONNECTED CALLED AS A NORMALLY OPEN VALVE

THE ACTUATOR IS DRAWN ON OTHER SIDE : 

THE ACTUATOR IS DRAWN ON OTHER SIDE A P IN DEFAULT POSITION P & A ARE BLOCKED When Manually operated, P & A are connected

THE ACTUATOR IS DRAWN ON OTHER SIDE : 

THE ACTUATOR IS DRAWN ON OTHER SIDE A P IN DEFAULT POSITION P & A ARE BLOCKED When Manually operated, P & A are connected

2/2 SPOOL VALVE : 

2/2 SPOOL VALVE

APPLICATIONS OF 2/2 VALVES : 

APPLICATIONS OF 2/2 VALVES AIR GUN-FOR CLEANING AIR EJECTION IN PRESSES ON/OFF VALVE IN THE BEGINNING OF CIRCUIT GAS CYLINDER AT HOME AIR FILLING AT PETROL STATIONS BUT CAN THIS OPERATE A CYLINDER?

THE BASIC CIRCUIT : 

THE BASIC CIRCUIT

WILL THIS WORK? : 

WILL THIS WORK?

SO A 3/2 VALVE IS REQUIRED : 

SO A 3/2 VALVE IS REQUIRED P Ex A P Ex A P A Ex

SINGLE ACTING CYL WILL WORK : 

SINGLE ACTING CYL WILL WORK

DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER : 

DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER

Control Valves : 

Control Valves ON/OFF VALVES DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES FLOW CONTROL VALVES PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES THERE ARE OTHER SPECIAL VALVES & COMBINATIONS OF ABOVE.

FLOW CONTROL VALVES : 

FLOW CONTROL VALVES CHECK VALVES NON RETURN VALVES ONE WAY VALVES

THROTTLE VALVES : 

THROTTLE VALVES USED FOR SPEED CONTROL CREATES A RESTRICTION IN THE FLOW PATH, REDUCING THE AREA OF FLOW. THERE WILL BE A PRESSURE DROP ACROSS THE ORIFICE. CAN BE FIXED RESTRICTION OR ADJUSTABLE

THROTTLE VALVES (FIXED RESTRICTION) : 

THROTTLE VALVES (FIXED RESTRICTION) THROTTLES IN BOTH DIRECTIONS OF FLOW

THROTTLE VALVES (VARIABLE RESTRICTION) : 

THROTTLE VALVES (VARIABLE RESTRICTION) THROTTLES IN BOTH DIRECTIONS OF FLOW

THROTTLE CUM CHECK VALVE (VARIABLE RESTRICTION) : 

THROTTLE CUM CHECK VALVE (VARIABLE RESTRICTION) THROTTLES IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY AND ALLOWS FREE FLOW IN OTHER DIRECTION.

Control Valves : 

Control Valves ON/OFF VALVES DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES FLOW CONTROL VALVES PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES THERE ARE OTHER SPECIAL VALVES & COMBINATIONS OF ABOVE.

PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES : 

PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES IF THE MAIN INLET PRESSURE IS TO BE CONTROLLED, A PRESSURE REGULATOR IS USED. WORKS ON THE PRINCIPLE OF ADJUSTING THE SPRING FORCE TO BALANCE AIR PRESSURE. SYMBOL:

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE : 

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE IF A REDUCED PRESSURE IS REQUIRED IN PART OF A CIRCUIT, PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES ARE USED. THESE ALSO WORK ON THE PRINCIPLE OF SPRING LOAD AGAINST OUTLET AIR PRESSURE.

SPECIAL VALVES FOR LOGIC CIRCUITS : 

SPECIAL VALVES FOR LOGIC CIRCUITS SHUTTLE VALVE (OR FUNCTION) ANY ONE OF 2 INPUTS & ONE OUTPUT.

SPECIAL VALVES : 

SPECIAL VALVES DUAL PRESSURE VALVE (AND FUNCTION) (FOR 2 HAND OPERATION)

A TYPICAL CIRCUIT : 

A TYPICAL CIRCUIT Z1 S1 FRL

Dos AND DON’Ts : 

Dos AND DON’Ts VALVES HAVE CLOSE TOLERANCES BETWEEN THE SPOOL AND HOUSINGS. SO DIRT/WATER/CONTAMINATION SHOULD NOT BE IN THE INLET AIR. USE PROPER FILTERS AND LUBRICATE THE AIR. ENSURE THAT SOLENOIDS ARE NOT KEPT ON FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME TO AVOID HEATING UP.

Dos AND DON’Ts : 

Dos AND DON’Ts WHEN USING SOLENOID VALVES FOR CLAMPING PURPOSES, THINK WHAT HAPPENS IN CASE OF SUDDEN POWER FAILURE IN SUCH CASES, USE THE SPRING DEFAULT SIDE FOR CLAMPING AND SOLENOID FOR UNCLAMPING. OR USE A DOUBLE SOLENOID VALVE

Dos AND DON’Ts : 

Dos AND DON’Ts MATCH CYLINDER AND VALVE PORT SIZES. COMPRESSED AIR IS VERY COSTLY KEEP MINIMUM LENGTH OF TUBING FOR ECONOMY & FAST RESPONSE.

Dos AND DON’Ts : 

Dos AND DON’Ts CONSULT THE ELECTRICAL ENGG. SPECIALIST WHILE SPECIFYING SOLENOID VOLTAGES FOR EASE OF DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL CONTROL CIRCUITS FOR COMPLICATED CIRCUITS.

Dos AND DON’Ts : 

Dos AND DON’Ts OPERATOR SAFETY IS OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE. IN CASE OF VERTICAL CYLINDERS, WHEN MACHINE IS SHUT DOWN, THE PISTON WILL COME DOWN DUE TO WEIGHT OF TOOL ATTACHED TO IT. PROVIDE LOCKING AS REQUIRED.

Dos AND DON’Ts : 

Dos AND DON’Ts ENSURE THAT THE PISTON OF THE CYLINDER IS NOT LOADED EXCEPT IN THE AXIAL DIRECTION. PROVIDE SUITABLE GUIDES AND COUPLINGS. THE PISTON ROD TENDS TO ROTATE A LITTLE BIT IN EACH STROKE. TAKE CARE.

CONCLUSION. : 

CONCLUSION. THE SUBJECT IS SO VAST THE TECHNOLOGY IS ADVANCING EVERYDAY THERE IS FUSION OF MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONICS, COMPUTERS AND ROBOTICS, IT IS POSSIBLE TO DESIGN AND MAKE ANY AUTOMATION. A LOT OF WEBSITES GIVE YOU A WEALTH OF INFO & ANIMATION.

THANK YOU : 

THANK YOU HOPE THAT THIS BASIC AND FUNDAMENTAL COURSE WILL HELP EACH OF YOU IN HAVING INCREASED INTEREST IN PNEUMATICS. IN EXPANDING YOUR HORIZON TO IDENTIFY IMPROVEMENTS THAT CAN BE MADE TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN YOUR RESPECTIVE FIELDS.