Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

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Introduction to Atomic Emission spectroscopy

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ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

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TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY TUBA KHAN SADAF HUSSAIN FATIMA SIDDIQUI Jinnah University for Women 2013

ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY: 

ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY Atomic spectroscopy concerned with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from either emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms.

TYPES OF ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY: 

TYPES OF ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY Atomic absorption spectra Atomic emission spectra Atomic fluorescence spectra

ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY: 

ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY In atomic emission (AE) spectroscopy, thermal or electrical energy from an arc, flame, spark, or plasma is used to excite an electron from a lower to higher energy atomic orbital when the excited electron returns to its ground state, by emitting a photon.

ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTRA: 

ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTRA Excited atom emits a photon of a particular wavelength, correspond to different colors. Since the emission spectrum is different for every element. EXAMPLE: The intense radiation of wavelength 5890 and 5896Angstrom are emitted out which are responsible for yellow color when sodium salt are introduced into a flame .

PRINCIPLE OF ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY: 

PRINCIPLE OF ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY

PRINCIPLE OF ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY : 

PRINCIPLE OF ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY

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Depending on the kind excited, the lines have different types: Line I Line II Line III

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Atomic emission spectrometry is very versatile due to the availability of a wide range of atomization-excitation sources.

TOPIC: INTERFERENCES IN AES & SAMPLE PREPARATION : 

TOPIC: INTERFERENCES IN AES & SAMPLE PREPARATION

Interferences in Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: : 

Interferences in Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Spectral interferences Ionization interferences Physical interferences Chemical interferences

Sample Preparation : 

Sample Preparation

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TOPIC APPLICATIONS OF ATOMIC EMSSION SPECTROSCOPY

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There are many application of AES .The important characteristics of emission analysis is the qualitative and quantitative determination of elements .This analysis help us in giving direct information about the molecular form of the sample . Qualitative Analysis In this analysis emission line obtain on a photographic plate and these line are identified and compare by the help of previous recorded spectrum of know elements. For trace amount RU lines must be identified by the help of this analysis RU lines can be determined Raies Ultima or Rulines when metal is excited it emits a complex spectrum it consist of many lines some are strong and others weak . On reducing the concentration of the metal the weaker lines are disappear. After further dilution it result in disappearance of more lines and ultimately only few lines are present These lines are known as RU lines

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The AES has been employed In determining the impurities of nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, copper, In Iron and Steel metallurgical processes, alloys of aluminum magnesium zinc copper l ead and tin have been analyzed In the oil industry lubricating oils have been analyzed for iron nickel etc In the petroleum industry, oil feedstock's are analyzed

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Animals and Plants solid samples and animal tissue have been analyses for many elements Plants and Soils Analysis have been carried on plants roots and deficiency in plant has been diagnosed by the help of AES.

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Topic Advantages & disadvantages Of aes

ADVANTAGES: : 

ADVANTAGES: In this spectroscopy, the inter-element interference is lower because of high temperature used in this technique. Emission spectra are obtained under a single set of excitation conditions and several elements can be recorded simultaneously. Multi element can be analyzed from very small sample. Applicability to elements that are difficult to be determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy: Barium, Carbon, Cerium, Lanthanum, Niobium,- Praseodymium, Sulphur , Phosphorus, Titanium, Tantalum, Vanadium and Zirconium can also be measured.

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Advantages of Spectrophotometer: High resolution Ease of automatic Flexibility of line selection, 200nm, flushing with e.g. nitrogen can get lower. Upto1600nm (sulfur / phosphorus / aluminium lines are found below 200nm).

DISADVANTAGES: : 

DISADVANTAGES: The disadvantages of this method include a huge cost of infrastructure maintenance and operating expense, the presence of several emission lines or spectral interferences and the necessity of having samples dissolved in solutions. As compare to absorption spectrometry, here more expensive equipment are required The procedure of Emission spectroscopy method is quite complicated than Absorption spectroscopy. The disadvantage of this technique is the high initial cost of instrumentation, because of the requirement for a primary source of radiation (an individual hollow cathode lamp, one for each element to be determined). Disadvantages of Spectrophotometer: Speed of analysis is slow Higher sample consumption

Limitation: 

Limitation In flame AES air flame and natural gas is used for atomization and excitation of the analyte. This procedure is quite limited as the temperature of the flame is not high enough to excite transition elements and non metals. It can be professionally used for the identification of alkali and alkaline earth metals only.

REFERENCES: 

REFERENCES Pharmaceutical analysis volume 2, lesson 5, page no.133 and 134 by DR.ANEES A SIDDIQUI Practical Pharmaceutical chemistry, 4 th edition part 2, lesson 8, page no. 338 by BRECKETT Alkemade , C.Th.J . and Herrmann, R. (1979) Fundamentals of Analytical Flame Spectroscopy, Hilger , Bristol L. Ebon, A. Fisher and S. J. Hill, an Introduction to Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Ed. E. H. Evans, Wiley, New York (1998). Skoog , D.A. and Leary, J.A. (1992) Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 4th edition, Saunders College Publishing, Orlando. J. C. Van Loon, Analytical Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Selected Methods, Academic Press, New York (1980). “SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS” By Vedyadhara . Unit 10: Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Page # 32-33 "ICP OPTICAL EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY" TECHNICAL NOTE 12 Chapter: Introduction to Atomic Emission Spectrometry By Lisa Goldstone, Odile Hirsch* Jobin Yvon , Atomic and molecular spectroscopy,Basic aspects and practical Application.By Sune Svanberg (4 th edition) pg 2 Pharmaceuticaldrug analysis by Kar ashutosh . Chem 4811 chapter#7 Dr.Augustine oforiogyeman Assistant professor of chemistry department of natural sciences Clayton state university. Faculty.kfupm.ed.sa… Atomicemission

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Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry (1986-present) CEm333 page8.13 (cem.msu.edu/cem333/week08.pdf+atomic+emission+spectroscopy+instrumentation. Pharmaceutical analysis volume 2 by Dr. Anees ahmad siddiqui Basic concepts of analytical chemistry by S.M. Khopkar Advanced inorganic chemistry volume 2 by Gurdeep Raj A handbook of chemical analysis by Pooja Bhagwan Skoog Instrumental Analysis Chem 4811 by DR. AUGUSTINE OFORI AGYEMAN "Chemical Analysis An instrument approach of B.Sc or M.Sc of all Indian universities" Chapter: Emission spectroscopy. By AK.shirvastava p.c Jain Third Edition pg.no : 335 to 338 Banerjee , P. (2012, March 17). Analytical chemistry. Retrieved from http://www.chemistryblog.net/atomic-emission-spectroscopy.html Lee, Y. (2004, May 14). Retrieved from www.wizchem.org/skoog/skoog10.ppt library, W. P. (2006). Retrieved from (http://apps.who.int/phint/en/p/docf/) Crook by JE spectrum in chemistry Kolchthoff,I.M and PJ elving.Eds “Treatise of analytical chemistry” Volume 7 Part I Hand book of analytical instrument 2nd edition by Rskhandpur Basic concept of analytical chymestry by SM Khopkar