COMPETENCY MAPPING : ADVESH CONSULTANCY SERVICES COMPETENCY MAPPING “Knowing is not enough; we must apply.Willing is not enough we must do.”- Goethe : “Knowing is not enough; we must apply.Willing is not enough we must do.”- Goethe Brief History:A Precursor of CompetencyModeling : Brief History:A Precursor of CompetencyModeling 1950’s: John Flanagan
1954 established Critical Incidents Technique as a precursor to the key methodology used in rigorous competency studies
significant behavioral events that distinguish between average and superior performers.
It is Flanagan’s critical incidents technique that sixteen years later inspires David McClelland to discover and develop the term of “competency” Brief History:The Concept of Competency : Brief History:The Concept of Competency 1970’s: “Testing for Competence Rather than Intelligence” (McClelland, 1973)
Competency: “an underlying characteristic of a person which enables them to deliver superior performance in a given job, role, or situation.”
Can be learned and developed over time
Implication: If competencies are made visible and training is accessible, individuals can understand and develop the required level of performance Brief History:Competency ModelingMatures : Brief History:Competency ModelingMatures 1980’s:
“Certain characteristics or abilities of the person enable him or her to demonstrate the appropriate specific actions.” (Boyatzis,Richard E. The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance. New York: Wiley, 1982, p. 12).
the first empirically-based and fully-researched book on competency model developments
specific behavior and clearly defined performance outcomes
like Flanagan, stressed importance of systematic analysis in
collecting and analyzing examples of the actual performance of individuals doing the work
behavioral event interview (BEI) TODAY! : 34 years after the first
competency model, more than
half of the Fortune 500
companies are using competency
modeling. TODAY! COMPETENCY Vs. COMPETENCE : COMPETENCY Vs. COMPETENCE Competency: A person- related concept that refers to the dimensions of behaviour lying behind competent performer.
Competence: A work- related concept that refers to areas of work at which the person is competent
Competencies: Often referred as the combination of the above two. CONCEPT OF COMPETENCY : CONCEPT OF COMPETENCY Skill:
Underline characteristics that give rise to skill accomplishment
Knowledge, skill and attitude Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB DEFINITION : DEFINITION First popularized by Boyatzis (1982) with Research result on clusters of competencies:
that exists in a person
that leads to behaviour
that meets the job demands
within parameters of organizational environment,
and that, in turn
brings about desired results” Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB Slide 10: Competencies are generic knowledge, motive, trait, social role or a skill of a person linked to superior performance on the job.
Competencies are personal characteristics that contribute to effective managerial performance.
Albanese 1989 WHAT IS COMPETENCY? : WHAT IS COMPETENCY? A competency is defined
as a behavior or set of behaviors
in a particular work context THE ICEBERG : THE ICEBERG ONLY 10% OF ANY ICEBERG IS VISIBLE. THE REMAINING 90% IS BELOW SEA LEVEL. THE ICEBERG : THE ICEBERG SEA LEVEL VISIBLE
ABOVE SEA LEVEL INVISIBLE
BELOW SEA LEVEL 90 % 10 % THE ICEBERG : THE ICEBERG The Iceberg phenomena
human beings … THE ICEBERG : THE ICEBERG SEA LEVEL KNOWLEDGE
SKILLS ATTITUDE UNKNOWN
TO OTHERS KNOWN
TO OTHERS THE ICEBERG : THE ICEBERG SEA LEVEL BEHAVIOR VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS
MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS KNOWN
TO OTHERS UNKNOWN
TO OTHERS IMPACT Slide 17: A competency is
an underlying characteristic
which enables him/her
in a given job, role or situation. Competencies areINPUTS : Competencies areINPUTS Slide 19: They consist of clusters of
knowledge, skills, and personal
that AFFECT an
individual’s ability to PERFORM How do competencies differ from skills and knowledge? : How do competencies differ from skills and knowledge? Competencies only include behaviors that demonstrate excellent performance.
Therefore, they do not include knowledge, but do include "applied" knowledge or the behavioral application of knowledge that produces success.
In addition, competencies do include skills, but only the manifestation of skills that produce success.
Finally, competencies are not work motives, but do include observable behaviors related to motives. Components ofCompetency : Components ofCompetency Skill
capabilities acquired through practice.
understanding acquired through learning.
inherent characteristics which are brought to the job
The observable demonstration of some competency,
skill, knowledge and personal attributes attributed to
excellent performance Slide 23: Does he use his knowledge ?
Does he use his skill?
Does he use his attitude/motive? JOB AND COMPETENCY : JOB AND COMPETENCY COMPETENCY JOB Underlying characteristic of a person’s inputs.
Cluster of knowledge, attitude and skill.
Generic knowledge,motive,trait,role or a skill.
Personal charcteristics,set of skills,related knowledge and attributes. Superior performance in a given job , role or situation.
Individual’s ability to perform
Linked to superior performance on the job
Contribute to effective managerial performance
Succeddfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job WHY DO WE NEED COMPETENCIES WHEN WE ALREADY HAVE JOB DESCRIPOTIONS? : WHY DO WE NEED COMPETENCIES WHEN WE ALREADY HAVE JOB DESCRIPOTIONS? In contrast to a job description, which typically lists the tasks or functions and responsibilities for a particular role, a set of competencies (or competency ‘profile’) lists the abilities needed to conduct those tasks or functions.Too often job descriptions are not worded in a manner that enables an employee's performance to be effectively measured. Competencies on the other hand are described in terms such that they can be observed, measured and rated against criteria that are standardized and required to do the job effectively Competencies : Competencies DistinguishExemplary PerformersfromAverage Performers EXERCISE 1 : EXERCISE 1 KNOWLEDGE SKILL Labour law Submission of returns
Maintenance of registers
Interpretation of law TYPES OF COMPETENCIES : TYPES OF COMPETENCIES Generic or specific:
Threshold or performance:
Basic competencies required to do the job, which do not differentiate between high and low performers
Performance competencies are those that differentiate between high and low performers
Behavioral characteristics that high performers display Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB COMPERTENCIES DEALING WITH PEOPLE : COMPERTENCIES DEALING WITH PEOPLE LEADING OTHERS INFLUENCING AND COMMUNICATING Establishing focus
Fostering Diversity Attention to communication
Building collaborative relationship COMPETENCIES DEALING WITH BUSINESS : COMPETENCIES DEALING WITH BUSINESS PREVENTING AND SOLVING PROBLEM ACHIEVING RESULTS Diagnostic information gathering
Technical expertise Initiative
Global prospective COMPETENCIES DEALING WITH SELF MANAGEMENT : COMPETENCIES DEALING WITH SELF MANAGEMENT Self confidence
Flexibility DAY 2 : DAY 2 What is a competency model? : What is a competency model? A competency model is a set of success factors, often called competencies that include the key behaviors required for excellent performance in a particular role. Excellent performers on-the-job demonstrate these behaviors much more consistently than average or poor performers. These characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in that they include the key behaviors that primarily drive excellent performance. They are generally presented with a definition and key behavioral indicators.In contrast, competencies do not include "baseline" skills and knowledge (i.e., commonly expected performance characteristics such as finishing assigned work, answering the telephone, writing follow-up letters, etc.), job tasks, or unusual or idiosyncratic behaviors that may contribute to a single individual's success. Competency Model Framework : Competency Model Framework COMPETENCY MAPPING : Competency mapping is a process of identifying
for a particular position in an organisation, and then
using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performance management, succession planning, etc. COMPETENCY MAPPING What is a global competency dictionary? : What is a global competency dictionary? A Competency Dictionary comprises of key Competencies, Competency definitions, Competency types, Competency levels and appropriate supporting behavioral indicators. ESTABLISHING FOCUS : ESTABLISHING FOCUS The ability to develop and communicate goals in support of the business’ mission.
a) Acts to align own unit’s goals with the strategic direction of the business
b) Ensures that people in the unit understand how their work relates to the business’s mission
c) Ensures that everyone understands and identifies with the unit’s mission
d) Ensures that the unit develops goals and a plan to help fulfill the business’s mission PROVIDING MOTIVATIONAL SUPPORT : PROVIDING MOTIVATIONAL SUPPORT Skill at enhancing others’ commitment to their work.
a) Recognizes and rewards people for their achievements
b) Acknowledges and thanks people for their contributions
c) Expresses pride in the group and encourages people to feel good about their accomplishments
d) Finds creative ways to make people’s work rewarding
e) Signals own commitment to a process by being personally present and involved at key events
f) Identifies and promptly tackles morale problems
g) Gives talks or presentations that energize groups ORAL COMMUNICATION : ORAL COMMUNICATION Expressing oneself clearly in conversations and interactions with others.
Speaks clearly and can be easily understood
Tailors the content of speech to the level and experience of the audience
Uses appropriate grammar and choice of words in 0ral speech
Organizes ideas clearly in oral speech
Expresses ideas concisely in oral speech
Maintains eye contact when speaking with others
Summarizes or paraphrases his/her understanding of what others have said to verify understanding and prevent miscommunication Stages of Competency CatalogueDevelopment : Stages of Competency CatalogueDevelopment Slide 44: Introduce the concept of competency
Deciding the scope of competency project Slide 45: Stage 2a: Identifying Employee Core Competencies
?? possessed by all employees regardless of their functions.
?? Review business vision and strategy
?? Identify Employee Core Competencies (behaviors) to achieve strategy
Stage 2b: Identifying Job Relevant Competencies
?? Relevant to each existing function/job/role.
?? Determine and understand the nature of the job/role/position to be analyzed.
?? Conduct focus group discussion How are the competencies identified for each job? : How are the competencies identified for each job? The competencies are derived primarily from a task analysis. This involves identifying the critical task of the job together with the jobholder and the immediate superior.
It is important that only the critical tasks are considered, as these are the ones that enable the jobholder to perform.
The critical tasks are then recorded as competency requirements. How are the competencies identified for each job? : How are the competencies identified for each job? In addition, the Performance Criteria to which the jobholder must satisfy are described.
The Performance Criteria are the standards to which the jobholder must demonstrate when carrying out the tasks.
For e.g. a Welder when joining two metal sheets together must ensure that the workplace is safe for him to carry out the task. He must also ensure that the weld that he produces meets the quality standards and that he welds within the specified time frame How are the competencies identified for each job? : How are the competencies identified for each job? The identified competencies, the Performance Criteria and the Required Competency Level
validated by the Head of Department
to ensure that it reflects
the current competency requirement of the
set by the Company on the Performance Criteria. Slide 49: Conduct behavioral event interview to identify
Define the competency with a description which
includes the previously identified behavior indicators
Scale each identified behavior indicator from lower to
higher levels of performance.
Validate and confirm the matrix of competency
catalogue with key stakeholders Slide 50: Define number of positions to be reviewed
• Identify roles and responsibilities of each position
(JD or JA)
• Establish competency matrix: match the roles and responsibilities with the competencies
• Analyze the weight of the roles and responsibilities as a basis to decide the level of proficiencies ROLE COMPETENCIES : ROLE COMPETENCIES A set of competencies required to perform a given role
Each competency has a skill set Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB IDENTIFICATION OF ROLE COMPETENCIES : IDENTIFICATION OF ROLE COMPETENCIES Structure and list of roles
Definition of roles
Competency requirement Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB STRUCTURE AND LIST OF ROLES: STEPS : STRUCTURE AND LIST OF ROLES: STEPS Organizational structure study and examination
List all the roles in the structure
Identify redundant and overlapping roles
Final list of roles Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB DEFINITION OF ROLE: STEPS : DEFINITION OF ROLE: STEPS Identify KPAs of the role
Link the KPAs with Dept. and Organizational goals
State the content of the above in one or two sentences
Position the role in perspective with that of others Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB JOB DESCRIPTION: STEPS : JOB DESCRIPTION: STEPS List down all the activities/tasks
small and big
Routine and Creative
Categorize activities under major heads Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB COMPETECNY IDENTIFICATION: STEPS : COMPETECNY IDENTIFICATION: STEPS Identify against each activity the following:
Role holder interview and listing
Day in the Life of Study
Internal/External customer interview and listing
Star performer interview and listing
Role holder critical incident analysis
Management Climate Study
Consolidate the above and make a checklist of competencies
Rank- order and finalize on 5/6 competencies critical to the role Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB COMPETENCY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS : COMPETENCY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS Attitude – Management Climate & Attitudinal Study
Set of Questions measuring 8 characteristics of Attitudinal Capability
Measures & identifies gaps
Organisation Culture/Decision Making
Also looks at perceived performance & opportunities for improvement
Benchmarking against other capable organizations
Outcomes : Organizational, Team & Individual Gaps COMPETENCY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS : COMPETENCY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS Behaviour & Skills- Day in the Life of Outlet Manager
Snapshot of Productivity & Effectiveness of Key Managers
4 -8 Hours observation of critical skills, behaviour & attitude to succeed
Measurement of AS-IS, DESIRED & SHOULD-BE
Outcomes : Organizational, Team & Individual Gaps
Behaviour & Skills- Top Performer Survey
20 top performers of Café Coffee Day and let them calibrate and rank the necessary competencies for superior performance
Outcomes : Organizational, Team & Individual Requirements
Values : Top management interviews
Outcomes : Key Values to Uphold Example of Day in the life of Study : Example of Day in the life of Study Pre-meeting, Meeting & Post-meeting issues analyzed on
Preparation, Building relationship, Identifying needs & objections, closing & administration
Diagnosis of sales man’s selling effectiveness & alignment to business needs COMPETENCY ASESSMENT : COMPETENCY ASESSMENT Following methods are used:
360 Degree feedback
Business Games Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB COMPETENCY MAPPING : COMPETENCY MAPPING Strategy structure congruence
Structure Role congruence
Each role to be unique
Vertical and horizontal role congruence
Ensure non repetitive tasks in two different roles
Ensure core competencies for each task
Link all the above and position to bring in competitive advantage Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB COMPETENCIES APPLICATIONS : COMPETENCIES APPLICATIONS Competency frameworks: Define the competency requirements that cover all the key jobs in an organization. This consists of generic competencies.
Competency maps: Describe the different aspects of competent behaviour in an occupation against competency dimensions such as strategic capability, resource management and quality.
Competency profiles: A set of competencies that are require to perform a specified role. Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB LUNCH : LUNCH Competency Flow Model : Competency Flow Model COMPETENCY Competencies are to performance what DNA is to people Job Description vs.Competency Model : Job Description vs.Competency Model Job description looks at what.
elements of the jobs and defines the job into sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job
Competency model focuses on how.
studies the people who do the job well (STARs), and defines the job in terms of the characteristics and behaviors of these people. SAMPLE CORE IDEOLOGIES OF SELECTED COMPANIES : SAMPLE CORE IDEOLOGIES OF SELECTED COMPANIES American Express Co.: customer service, reliability,
The Boeing Co.: pioneers; product safety andquality
Citicorp: autonomy , aggressiveness and self-confidence
General Electric Co.: technology ,balance among stakeholders, Slide 68: Procter & Gamble Co.: honesty and fairness,respect for individual
3M Corp.: innovation, initiative and personal growth,
Wal-Mart Stores Inc.: commitment, enthusiasm;
Walt Disney Co.: creativity, dreams, imagination WHY USE COMPETENCIES? : WHY USE COMPETENCIES? When done correctly, implementing competencies within your organization gives you the means to: Translate the organization’s vision and goals into expected employee behavior
Implement more effective and legally defensible recruitment, selection and assessment methods
Reduce hiring costs and absenteeism / turnover rates
Identify areas for employee development that are directly linked to desired outcomes and organizational objectives
Target training dollars in areas that are will realize the most return on investment
Set more effective (and valid) criteria for developing and evaluating performance
Identify gap between present skill sets and future requirements
And if downsizing is required, ensure retention of the essential competencies for the success of the organization.
Furthermore, by communicating these competencies to employees, organizations empower employees to take charge of their careers, direct their own personal development, and continually self-evaluate and improve.
What are Roles? What are the benefits of implementing a competency-based approach to developing professionals? : What are the benefits of implementing a competency-based approach to developing professionals? For the Associates, competency-based practices: Identify the success criteria (i.e., behavioral standards of performance excellence) required to be successful in their role.
Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and specify targeted areas for professional development.
Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills.
Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance, development, and career related issues. For The Company, : For The Company, competency-based practices: Reinforce corporate strategy, culture, and vision.
Establish expectations for performance excellence, resulting in a systematic approach to professional development, improved job satisfaction, and better employee retention.
Increase the effectiveness of training and professional development programs by linking them to the success criteria (i.e., behavioral standards of excellence).
Provide data on development needs that emerge from group and/or organizational composites that are an outcome of multi-rater assessments.
Provide a common framework and language for discussing how to implement and communicate key strategies.
Provide a common understanding of the scope and requirements of a specific role
Provide common, organization-wide standards for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries. For Managers : For Managers Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the hiring and selection process.
Provide more objective performance standards.
Clarify standards of excellence for easier communication of performance expectations to direct reports.
Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the manager and employee about performance, development, and career-related issues Specific Improvements Related to Using Competency-Based Systems : Specific Improvements Related to Using Competency-Based Systems 5-10% in rate of hiring successful candidates.
15-20% in retention of desired employees.
15-25% in morale as measured in employee surveys.
20% in goal completion by individuals and teams How will Career Development Framework benefit the company in terms of training? : How will Career Development Framework benefit the company in terms of training? Training and development will be more focused, as it will address specific gaps in competencies. It will no longer be based on qualitative justifications. Though in the initial period, training expenditure may increase, depending on the number of competency gaps, in the long term, the return on training expenditure may is justifiable when competencies gaps are addressed and employees perform to expectations. How is competency linked to Training and Development? : How is competency linked to Training and Development? Reconciliation between the Required Competency Level and your Current Competency Level will determine whether there are gaps to be addressed. The gaps will allow the employees to focus on the training and development programs necessary. There is no longer a need for employees to wonder what training is necessary. How do I use the Competency Dictionary? : How do I use the Competency Dictionary? The Competency Dictionary can be used for many Human Resource Management purposes, such as: A guide in creating job descriptions
A guide for hiring managers during behavior-based job interviews.
A self-assessment tool for employees and managers
A performance management guide for managers/supervisors
A training evaluation tool THANK YOU : THANK YOU