intro.Indus.Rev.(1)

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Part I

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Introduction to the Industrial Revolution: 

Slide 1 Introduction to the Industrial Revolution

Shift from the Agrarian World: 

Slide 2 Shift from the Agrarian World Agricultural Revolution – New farming methods invented Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; certain crops revitalized soil Enclosure movement had large land owners buying and then fencing public land

Shift from the Agrarian World: 

Slide 3 Shift from the Agrarian World Smaller farmers pushed off of land to work as wage laborers for various land owners or to move to the growing cities More food produced = population increase In 1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million.

Textile Industry Takes Off: 

Slide 4 Textile Industry Takes Off Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later

Textile Industry Takes Off: 

Slide 5 Textile Industry Takes Off Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including: 1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth The Spinning Jenny

Textile Industry Takes Off: 

Slide 6 Textile Industry Takes Off 1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together 1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame The Spinning Jenny

Textile Industry Takes Off: 

Slide 7 Textile Industry Takes Off 1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth 1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton Plans for the Cotton Gin

Textile Industry Takes Off: 

Slide 8 Textile Industry Takes Off These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory Plans for the Cotton Gin

Britain Industrializes First : 

Slide 9 Britain Industrializes First 1715-1850 Many natural resources available in Britain, including large amounts of coal and iron

Britain Industrializes First: 

Slide 10 Britain Industrializes First Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power and many natural harbors for easy trade A strong, stable government allowed a strong, stable economy to develop which resulted in extra money to invest

Britain Industrializes First: 

Slide 11 Britain Industrializes First Colonial empire provided much needed raw materials and markets Spreads to continental Europe, United States of America, and Japan between 1850 and 1914

Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution: 

Slide 12 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced

Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution: 

Slide 13 Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution Cities begin to dominate the western world Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands (imperialism)