Angina

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Angina Stable angina :

Angina Stable angina EDIT BY: SUN SHINE

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Definition : Angina is a type of chest discomfort caused by poor blood flow through the blood vessels (coronary vessels) of the heart muscle (myocardium).

TYPE OF ANGINA:

TYPE OF ANGINA Stable angina. Un Stable angina.

Stable angina :

Stable angina Definition : Stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that typically occurs with activity or stress. The pain usually begins slowly and gets worse over the next few minutes before going away. It quickly goes away with medication or rest, but may happen again with additional activity or stress.

Causes :

Your heart muscle is working all the time, so it needs a continuous supply of oxygen. This oxygen is provided by the coronary arteries, which carry blood. When the heart muscle has to work harder, it needs more oxygen. Symptoms of angina occur when the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ), or by a blood clot. The most common cause of angina is coronary heart disease (CHD). Angina pectoris is the medical term for this type of chest pain. Stable angina is predictable chest pain. Although less serious than unstable angina, it can be very painful or uncomfortable. Causes

Causes:

Causes The risk factors for coronary heart disease include: Being male . Diabetes . Family history of coronary heart disease before age 50 . High blood pressure . High LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol . Not getting enough exercise. Obesity . Smoking. Cold weather. Exercise . Emotional tension . Large meals .

Causes:

Other causes of angina include: Abnormal heart rhythms Anemia Coronary artery spasm (also called Prinzmetal's angina) Heart failure Heart valve disease Hyperthyroidism Causes

Symptoms :

The most common symptom is chest pain that occurs behind the breastbone or slightly to the left of it. It may feel like tightness, heavy pressure, squeezing, or crushing pain. The pain may spread to the: Arm (usually the left) Back Jaw Neck Shoulder Some people say the pain feels like gas or indigestion . Symptoms

Symptoms:

Symptoms The pain typically: Occurs after activity, stress, or exertion Lasts an average of 1 - 15 minutes Is relieved with rest or a medicine called nitroglycerin Angina attacks can occur at any time during the day, but most occur between 6 a.m. and noon. Other symptoms of angina include: A feeling of indigestion or heartburn Dizziness or light-headedness Nausea, vomiting, and cold sweats Palpitations Shortness of breath Unexplained tiredness after activity (more common in women)

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis Your health care provider will perform a physical exam and measure your blood pressure. The following tests may be done to diagnose or rule out angina: Coronary angiography Coronary risk profile ECG Exercise tolerance test (stress test or treadmill test) Stress echocardiogram

Treatment :

The options for treating angina include lifestyle changes, medications, and invasive procedures such as coronary angioplasty or stent placement and coronary artery bypass surgery . You and your doctor should agree on a plan for treating your angina on a daily basis. This should include: What medicines you should be taking to prevent angina What activities are okay for you to do, and which ones are not What medicines you should take when you have angina What are the signs that your angina is getting worse When you should call the doctor Treatment

MEDICATIONS :

MEDICATIONS You may be asked to take one or more medicines to treat blood pressure, diabetes, or high cholesterol levels. Follow your doctor's directions closely to help prevent your angina from getting worse. Nitroglycerin pills or spray may be used to stop chest pain. Taking aspirin and clopidogrel (Plavix) helps prevent blood clots from forming in your arteries, and reduces your risk of having a heart attack. Ask your doctor whether you should be taking these medications. Your doctor may give you one or more medicines to help prevent you from having angina.

MEDICATIONS:

MEDICATIONS medicines to help prevent you from having angina: ACE inhibitors to lower blood pressure and protect your heart Beta-blockers to lower heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen use by the heart Calcium channel blockers to relax arteries, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on the heart Nitrates to help prevent angina Ranolazine (Ranexa) to treat chronic angina.

Possible Complications :

Heart attack Sudden death caused by abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) Unstable angina Possible Complications

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