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ADHD By: Tania Lawson

What is ADHD?:

What is ADHD? ADHD – Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Also referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder One of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. Usually diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. The average age of onset is 7 years old. It affects 3-5% of school-age children 60% of children who experience ADHD in childhood continue to have symptoms as adults

ADHD has 3 subtypes:

ADHD has 3 subtypes Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories. Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree. Predominantly inattentive The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the attention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children.

ADHD has 3 subtypes:

ADHD has 3 subtypes Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. Most children have the combined type of ADHD.

Symptoms of Inattention:

Symptoms of Inattention Easily distracted Miss details Forget things Frequently switch from one activity to another Difficulty focusing on one thing Becomes bored easily Difficult to focus attention on organizing & completing a task or learning something new Trouble completing or turning in homework assignments Often loses things needed to complete tasks or activities Doesn’t seem to listen when spoken to Daydreams Becomes easily confused, and moves slowly Difficulty processing information as quickly & accurately as others Struggles to follow instructions

Symptoms of hyperactivity:

Symptoms of hyperactivity Fidgets and squirms in their seats Talks nonstop Dashes around, touching or playing with anything & everything in sight Trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time Constantly in motion Difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities

Symptoms of Impulsivity:

Symptoms of Impulsivity Very impatient Blurts out inappropriate comments Shows emotions without restraint Acts without regard for consequences Difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games Often interrupts conversations or others activities May often come off as aggressive or unruly.

Myths about ADHD children:

Myths about ADHD children All kids with ADD/ADHD are hyperactive. Kids with ADD/ADHD can never pay attention. Kids with ADD/ADHD could behave better if they wanted to. Kids will eventually grow out of ADD/ADHD. Medication is the best treatment option for ADD/ADHD.


Causes Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD. Genes Learning about specific genes could help researchers lead to better treatment. Environmental factors Studies suggest a potential link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and ADHD in children. Brain Injuries Children who have suffered a brain injury may show some behaviors similar to those of ADHD. However, only a small percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury.


Causes Sugar The idea that refined sugar causes ADHD or makes symptoms worse is popular, but more research discounts this theory than supports it. Food Additives Recent British research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food additives like artificial colors or preservatives, and an increase in activity.

Who is at Risk?:

Who is at Risk? ADHD affects about 4.1% of American adults age 18 years and older in a given year. The disorder affects 9.0% of American children ages 13 to 18 years. Boys are four times at risk than girls. This is because the guidelines used in assessment and diagnosis have traditionally focused on males. Undiagnosed women tend to recognize their ADHD after a child has been diagnosed & the woman begins to see similar behavior in herself.

Treatment Options:

Treatment Options Medication Most common medication is called a “Stimulant.” Various types of psychotherapy Education or training Or a combination of treatments Treatments can relieve many of the disorder’s symptoms, but there is no cure. Researchers are developing more effective treatments & interventions, & using new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand ADHD and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.


Medication There are no one-size-fits-all approach Sometimes several different medications or dosages must be tried before finding one that works for a particular child. Some medications come in short-acting, long-acting, or extended release varieties. In each, the active ingredient is the same, but it is released differently in the body. There are many medications that can be used for ADHD Medications do NOT cure ADHD.

Child in the Classroom:

Child in the Classroom They demand attention by talking out of turn or moving around the room. They have trouble following instructions, especially when they’re presented in a list. They often forget to write down homework assignments, do them, or bring completed work to school. They often lack fine motor control, which makes note-taking difficult & handwriting a trial to read. They often have trouble with operations that require ordered steps, such as long division or solving equations. They usually have problems with long-term projects where there is not direct supervision. They don’t pull their weight during group work & may even keep a group from accomplishing its tasks. Tend to have low grades.

Teacher Expectations:

Teacher Expectations Seat the child where distractions are minimized. Structure the student’s environment to accommodate his/her needs. Seat the child away from potentially distracting areas (such as doors, windows, and computers Child should sit at the front of the class, where it is easier to pay attention Use a signal to help the child stay on task. Find ways to praise the child. Center constructive criticism between compliments. Find opportunities to allow hyperactive children to use their energy. Have the child look directly at your eyes when speaking to them. When giving directions, keep them short and simple. Create a system to make it easy for parents & students to get homework assignments. Find a student that can work as a “homework buddy.” Reduce homework assignments. Have more difficult concepts earlier in the day. Give directions to one assignment at a time instead of directions to multiple tasks all at once Vary the pace and type of activity to maximize the student’s attention Teacher may need to repeat instructions, if needed .


References 0003126 http :// children b 3 adhd_add_signs_symptoms.htm http:// /mental/ teaching_tips_add_adhd.htm http:// /mental/ adhd_add_teaching_strategies.htm

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