Effect of Bio Field Treatment on silicon,tin and lead powders

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The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders.

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Research Article Open Access Trivedi et al. J Material Sci Eng 2013 2:3 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Research Article Open Access Material Science Engineering Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders Mahendra K Trivedi Shrikant Patil and Rama Mohan Tallapragada Trivedi foundation14747 N Northsight Blvd Suite 111-136 Scottsdale AZ 85260 USA Corresponding author: Shrikant Patil Trivedi foundation14747 N Northsight Blvd Suite 111-136 Scottsdale AZ 85260 USA E-mail: researchtrivedifoundation.org Received August 07 2013 Accepted August 29 2013 Published September 08 2013 Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S T allapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Copyright: © 2013 Trivedi MK et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Keywords: Biofeld Particle size X-ray difraction Silicon Tin Lead Introduction Electrical currents along with associated magnetic felds that are complex and dynamic are present inside the bodies on many diferent scales most likely due to dynamical processes such as heart and brain function blood and lymph fow ion transport across cell membranes and other biologic processes 1. Bio feld is a cumulative efect exerted by these felds of human body on the surroundings. Typically it may act directly on molecular structures changing the conformation of molecules in functionally signifcant ways as well as may transfer bio- information through energy signals interacting directly with the energy felds of life. At the balanced intersection of human and machine adaptation is found the optimally functioning brain-computer interface BCI 2. Experiments are reported of BCI controlling a robotic quad copter in three-dimensional 3D physical space using non invasive scalp electroencephalogram EEG in human subjects. Mr. Mahendra. K. Trivedi is known to transform the characteristics of various living and non- living materials through bio feld in his physical presence as well as through his thought intervention. Te details of several scientifc investigations and the results in the form of original data are reported elsewhere 3-7. Te present paper reports the changes in the characteristics of powders of group IV elements silicon tin and lead afer exposure to the bio feld of Mr. Trivedi. Experimental Silicon -325 mesh tin -325 mesh and lead -200 mesh powders of Alpha Aesar are used in the present investigation. Te purity of the powders is respectively 99.5 99.8 and 99. Both untreated and powders exposed to thought intervention of Mr. Trivedi at diferent times are characterized by Laser particle size analysis Specifc surface area BET X-ray Difraction XRD Termo Gravimetric Analysis TGA Diferential Termal Analysis DTA and Simultaneous Diferential Termal Analysis SDTA. Average particle size and size distribution are obtained using SYMPATEC HELOS-BF laser particle size analyzer with a detection range of 0.1 to 875 µm micro meters. From the particle size distribution d 50 the average particle size and d 99 maximum particle size below which 99 of particles are present for the control untreated or as received powders are taken as standard and are compared with the results obtained on four separately treated powders. Surface area determination is carried out using a SMART SORB 90 BET surface area analyzer with a measuring range of 0.2 to 1000 m 2 /g. X-ray difraction is carried out using a powder Phillips Holland PW 1710 XRD system. A copper anode with nickel flter is used. Te wavelength of the radiation is 1.54056 Å 10 -10 m or 10 -8 Cm. Te data is obtained in the form of 2θ vs. Intensity chart as well as a detailed table containing 2θ° d value Å peak width 2θ° peak intensity counts relative Intensity etc. Te‘d’ values are compared with standard JCPDS data base and the Miller Indices h k and l for various 2θ° values are noted. Te data are then analyzed using PowderX sofware to obtain lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Termo gravimetric analysis TGA and simultaneous diferential thermal analysis SDTA combined analyses are carried for the tin and lead powders from room temperature to 400°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min in air. While for silicon powder thermo gravimetric analysis TGA and diferential thermal analysis SDTA combined analysis are Abstract Silicon tin and lead powders belong to group IV in periodic table and exhibit decreasing semi conducting nature towards the bottom of the group. These are very useful in producing non ferrous powder metallurgy components. In the present investigation silicon tin and lead powders are exposed to bio feld. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size after an initial decrease is found to increase with increase in number of days after treatment although the size is lee than that exhibited by untreated powder suggesting the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering. The BET surface area increased slightly in silicon powder but did not change in tin and lead powders. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to bio feld after 20 days showed fracture paths and fractures at inter and intra particle boundaries in treated powders. Thermal analysis indicated a decrease in heat of reaction and decrease in mass in treated samples. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to bio feld even after 179 days. These results indicate that the properties of the metallic powders can be controlled even up to atomic level by exposing to bio feld.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Page 2 of 7 Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal carried out from room temperature to 1450°C at a heating rate of 40°C/ min in air. Scanning Electron microscopy of untreated and treated powders is carried out using a JEOL JSM-6360 instrument. Results Particle size and size distribution Particle size and particle size distribution was determined by laser particle size analyzer. From these data the average particle size d 50 d 10 and d 99 the sizes below which 10 percent and 99 percent of particles are present respectively are noted for both untreated and samples treated for 11 86 91 and 109 days and given in Table 1. To understand whether coarser or fner particles have changed on treatment percent particles fner than average particle size in treated powders were evaluated using the relation 100d 50 -d 10 /d 10 . Similarly percent particles coarser than average particle size in treated powders were evaluated using the relation 100d 99 -d 50 /d 50 . Tese parameters are plotted as function of time ‘t’ in number of days afer treatment and shown in Figure 1. Lead powder on treatment showed a decrease in percent of coarse as well as fne particles. Coarse tin particles showed an initial percent decrease followed by increase on prolonged treatment while fner tin particles showed slight increase as well as decrease. Both coarse and fne silicon particles did not show signifcant changes in size on treatment. Specifc surface area Te specifc surface areas of both untreated and treated powders as determined by BET technique are given in Table 2. Rationalization of the parameter was done by computing the percent change in specifc surface area between untreated and treated powders Δs 100s t - s 0 / s 0 . Te specifc surface area of treated tin powders did not show any change while that of silicon and lead powders showed increase. Scanning electron microscopy Te powders were examined in a Scanning Electron Microscope SEM. SEM pictures of both untreated and treated powders respectively are shown in Figure 2. It is evident that on treatment a reduction in size of lead particles had occurred while there was no signifcant change in size of tin particles. Internal boundaries where the particles got welded can be noticed in large particles. X-ray Difraction What must be happening to cause these signifcant changes in particle size and surface area In order to fnd a probable cause the powders were examined by x ray difraction. Data analysis: Obtained ‘d’ values from the x-ray spectra were compared with standard JCPDS data base and the Miller Indices h k and l for various 2θ° values were noted. Te data were then analyzed using PowderX sofware to obtain lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Te crystallite size was calculated using the formula Crystallite size k λ/ b Cos θ where λ is the wavelength of x-radiation used 1.54056 × 10 -10 m ‘b’ is the peak width at half height and k is the equipment constant with a value 0.94. Te obtained crystallite size will be in nano meters or 10 -9 m. Crystallite size in metals can correspond to sub grain size when the grain size is equivalent to single crystal size. It is also possible that some part of the observed X-ray peak width could be due to the instrument broadening already corrected while the other part could be due to the strain in the crystal lattice. Te change between various powders was assessed by using relative parameters as follows: Percent change in lattice parameter is the ratio of diference in the values between untreated and treated powders to the value of untreated powders expressed as per cent. Typically for the parameter ‘a’ this is equal to 100Δa/a c where Δaa t - a c /a c . Tis is also known as strain and when multiplied with the elastic modulus gives the force applied on the atoms. When the force is compressive the change is negative while a positive value indicates a stretching or tensile force. In a similar manner the percent change in unit cell volume and crystallite sizes were computed. Te weight of atom was computed from the sum of all electrons protons and neutrons. Weight of atomnumber of protons×weight of proton+number of neutrons×weight of neutron+number of electrons × weight of electron Since the number of atoms per unit cell of the crystal was known the weight of the unit cell was computed. Te latter divided by the 0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 0 50 100 150 Percent change in partcle size between fine and coarse partcles wrt d50 Number of days a f er treatment 100d50- d10/d10 silicon 100d50- d10/d10 Tin 100d50- d10/d10 Lead 100d99- d50/d50 silicon 100d99- d50/d50 Tin 100d99- d50/d50 Lead Figure 1: Percent change in particle size of particles fner and coarser than average particle size d50 as a function of number of days after treatment. Number of days after treatment Particle size d10 in micrometers Average particle size d50 in micrometers Particle size d99 in micrometers Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead 0 1.33 5.13 19.95 4.2 28.5 71.8 10.6 147.6 348.3 11 1.04 4.05 14.11 3.8 18.1 38.3 10.1 89.5 128.5 86 0.97 4.93 3.7 25.1 9.8 114.6 91 1.39 3.79 4.2 17.4 10.6 114 109 1.4 4.5 4.2 21.1 10.5 122.4 Table 1: Average particle size d50 and d99 the size below which 99 of the particles are present in untreated as well as powders treated after different number of days. Number of days after treatment BET Surface area m 2 /g Percent change in Surface area on treatment Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead 0 1.96 0.11 0.04 20 0.11 0.00 21 0.07 75.00 22 3.12 59.18 105 3.26 66.33 124 3.10 58.16 Table 2: BET surface area and percent change in surface area of untreated and treated powders.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Page 3 of 7 Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal volume of the unit cell gives the theoretical density. Since the volume of unit cell of the powder changes on treatment the density as well as weight of atom will also change. Te weight of the atom when multiplied by the Avogadro’s number 6.023×10 23 gives the atomic weight M or the weight of a gram atom of the substance. Te ratio diference in atomic weight between untreated and treated samples to the atomic weight of untreated sample was then expressed as per cent change in atomic weight. Typically this is same as 100×ΔM/M c where ΔMM t -M c /M c . Tis value also represents the percent change in sum of weights of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Te percent change in positive charge per unit volume of the atom was computed as follows Te atomic radius was obtained by dividing the lattice parameter ‘a’ with 2. r a/2 Ten the volume of the atom was obtained by assuming it to be spherical V 4πr 3 /3 Te positive charge per unit volume of the atom was computed by multiplying the number of protons p in the atom with elementary charge 1.6×10 -19 coulombs and then by dividing with the volume of the atom. Te percent change in positive charge per unit volume ΔZ between untreated and treated powders was then obtained as ΔZ 100Zt + -Zc + /Zc + Results of XRD: Te results of XRD obtained afer data analysis are given in Tables 3a-3d. Variation in percent change in unit cell volume and percent change in atomic weight with number of days afer treatment Table 3a 3c and Figure 3 showed similar behavior for all the powders. An initial increase followed by decrease in case of lead powders while the reverse this initial decrease followed by increase in case of silicon and tin powders. Percent nuclear charge per unit volume of atom showed exactly opposite variation. An initial decrease followed by increase in case of lead powders and initial increase followed by decrease in case of silicon and tin powders Figure 4. Te variation in crystallite size is shown in Figure 5. Lead powder showed an initial decrease followed by increase. Silicon powders showed a continuous decrease followed by a steady crystallite size corresponding to that exhibited by untreated powders. Tin powders showed a decrease followed by increase reaching a steady state crystallite size. Results of thermal analysis: Change in thermal characteristics of treated lead and tin powders in nitrogen atmosphere and air were studied using DSC and SDTA respectively Table 4 and 5. DSC results indicated no signifcant change in melting point. Te latent heat of fusion ΔH in treated lead and tin powders had decreased up to a maximum of 11.85 and 20.71. Te percent change in ΔH between untreated and treated powders is shown in Figure 6. Te percent change in mass between the initial powders and the powders at respective melting points Figure 7 as well as the percent change in equivalent ΔH as measured by SDTA in air between untreated and treated powders is shown in Figure 8. Te mass at melting point in both lead and tin powders had decreased up to 7.23 and 5.78 respectively indicating vaporization. Te equivalent latent heat of fusion in treated lead and tin powders had decreased up to a maximum of 43.07 and a Lead powder untreated b Lead powder treated c Tin powder untreated d Tin powder treated Figure 2: Scanning electron micrographs of untreated and treated lead and tin powders.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Page 4 of 7 Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal 31.17 respectively. Te decrease in latent heat of fusion in all the treated powders without signifcant change in melting temperature suggests that the powders are already in a high energy state prior to melting. Discussions Particle can be single crystals or poly crystalline. In the later case the grain boundaries boundaries between adjacent single crystals are the structural weak points and can fracture under stress reducing the particle size. However the fracture of particles creates fresh surfaces which are amenable for cold welding of such surfaces increasing the particle size. Tus changes in particle size are alternately attributed to fracture creation of fresh particle surfaces and welding. Tis kind of behavior is exhibited by tin particles. Silicon being covalent bonded is strong and showed least deformation of coarse particles while deformation along cleavage planes may have contributed to increase in Number of days after treatment Volume of unit cell × 10-24 Cm 3 Percent change in volume of unit cell Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead Control 0 158.81 108.06 121.94 Treated T1 69 158.97 0.096 67 108.46 0.366 7 121.83 -0.090 Treated T2 133 158.9 108.06 0.055 -0.004 Treated T3 157 158.94 0.081 164 108.2 0.130 38 122.03 0.071 Treated T4 179 158.97 0.100 178 108.51 0.415 48 121.97 0.020 Table 3a: Volume of the unit cell and percent change in volume for control and treated powders. Number of days after treatment Effective nuclear charge per unit volume of the atom Coulombs/Cm3 × 10 3 Percent change in effective nuclear charge Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead Control 0 26.93 77.18 205.4 Treated T1 69 26.90 -0.096 67 76.76 -0.547 7 205.6 0.091 Treated T2 133 26.92 77.18 -0.055 0.006 Treated T3 157 26.91 -0.081 164 77.03 -0.195 38 205.3 -0.070 Treated T4 179 26.90 -0.100 178 76.70 -0.619 48 205.4 -0.019 Table 3b: Effective nuclear charge per unit volume of the atom and percent change in this parameter for control and treated powders. Number of days after treatment Atomic weight Grams/gram atom Percent change in atomic weight Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead Control 0 28.24 120.029 208.797 Treated T1 69 28.267 0.096 67 120.469 0.366 7 208.608 -0.090 Treated T2 133 28.255 120.025 0.055 -0.004 Treated T3 157 28.262 0.081 164 120.186 0.130 38 208.944 0.071 Treated T4 179 28.268 0.100 178 120.527 0.415 48 208.838 0.020 Table 3c: Atomic weight and percent change in atomic weight for control and treated powders.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Page 5 of 7 Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal size of fne particles. Lead being the weakest material showed decrease in size of both fne and coarse particles. Tese results are also in agreement with increased surface area. Te existence of internal particle boundaries and fracturing of coarse particles into fner ones will certainly increase the surface as observed. Scanning electron micrographs of treated lead powder showed fractured particles and internal boundaries that may have contributed to increased surface area. X-ray difraction of treated silicon and tine powders showed decreased unit cell volume and atomic weight while it increased the percent change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom. Decrease in nuclear charge per unit volume indicates increase in atomic volume or decrease in number of positively charged protons. Tis reduced charge will attract the neighbouring atoms with lesser force thus increasing the unit cell and crystallite size as was observed in the present experiments. Te interesting result observed in the present experiments is that the percent change in atomic weight is inversely proportional to percent change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and vice versa. Tis is only possible if protons are converted to neutrons and vice versa. Tat is bio energy mediates energy conversion to mass and mass conversion to energy through interchange of protons and neutrons. Conclusions Bio feld exerted by Mr. Trivedi on aluminium metal powders had caused the following efects: 1. Changes in particle size of powders on treatment are alternately attributed to fracture creation of fresh particle surfaces and welding. 2. Te specifc surface area of the treated powders had increased with increase in number of days afer treatment which was also consistent with decreased percent of coarser particles. 3. Scanning electron microscopy indicated internal boundaries and angular particles thus justifying the observed decrease in surface area. 4. Results of X-ray difraction had showed that treatment with bio feld had decreased the percent change in both unit cell volume and atomic weight while it increased the percent change in Number of days after treatment Crystallite size × 10 -9 m Percent change in crystallite size Silicon Tin Lead Silicon Tin Lead Control 0 71.1 107.67 71.6 Treated T1 69 106.7 50 67 143.41 33.27 7 85.9 20 Treated T2 133 85.3 107.6 20 -0.01 Treated T3 157 71.1 0 164 143.44 33.29 38 53.7 -25 Treated T4 179 71.1 0 178 143.49 33.25 48 61.4 -14.3 Table 3d: Crystallite size and percent change in crystallite size of control and treated powders. -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 50 100 150 200 Percent change in volume of unit cell Number of days a fer treatment Silicon Tin Lead Figure 3: Percentage change in volume of unit cell of treated powders. -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 Percent change in effectve nuclear charge Number of days a fer treatment Silicon Tin Lead Figure 4: Percentage change in effective nuclear charge per unit volume of the atom. -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 50 100 150 200 Percent change in crystallite size Number of days a fer treatment Silicon Tin Lead Figure 5: Percentage change in crystallite size in treated powders. Parameter Number of days after treatment Lead Tin ΔH J/g 0 21.18 56.60 18 20.99 19 56.74 22 18.67 54.37 25 21.97 44.88 Percent change in ΔH 18 -0.90 19 0.25 22 -11.85 -3.94 25 3.73 -20.71 Table 4: Differential scanning calorimetry of lead and tin powders.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Page 6 of 7 Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal Parameter Number of days after treatment Lead Tin Peak integral from SDTA s°C 0 25.56 100.63 11 37.70 15 112.49 64 25.62 68 179.53 76 35.18 80 136.51 96 60.07 100 246.92 K-conversion factor to DSC 0 7.40 6.13 11 7.40 15 6.13 64 7.40 68 6.13 76 7.40 80 6.13 96 7.40 100 6.13 Mass of sample mo mg 0 10.29 13.14 11 14.89 15 14.05 64 18.11 68 34.06 76 23.90 80 25.22 96 22.55 100 28.56 Latent heat of fusion ΔH J/g 0 18.39 46.92 11 18.73 15 49.06 64 10.47 68 32.29 76 10.89 80 33.16 96 19.70 100 52.96 Melting Point °C 0 325.71 232.91 11 325.98 15 232.66 64 324.99 68 234.04 76 326.17 80 232.87 96 327.04 100 232.86 Mass of sample at melting point m o 0 9.88 12.38 11 14.73 15 13.63 64 16.80 68 33.30 76 22.60 80 24.20 96 22.50 100 28.67 Percent change in mass 0 -3.94 -5.78 11 -1.11 15 -2.98 64 -7.23 68 -2.23 76 -5.45 80 -4.06 96 -0.23 100 0.38 11 1.88 15 4.56 64 -43.07 68 -31.17 76 -40.78 80 -29.33 96 7.17 100 12.88 Table 5: Simultaneous differential thermal analysis SDTA of lead and tin powders. -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percent chnge in heat of rea cton ΔH Number of days a fer treatment Lead Tin Figure 6: Percent change in ΔH between untreated and treated powders as determined by DSC. -8.00 -7.00 -6.00 -5.00 -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent change in mass at meltng point Number of days afer treatment Lead Tin Figure 7: Percent change in mass at melting point as determined by SDTA.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125 Page 7 of 7 Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000125 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal nuclear charge per unit volume of atom. Tese results suggest that bio energy had mediated energy conversion to mass and mass conversion to energy through interchange of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. 5. Termal analysis of the tin and lead powders indicated a decrease in latent heat of fusion in all the treated powders without signifcant change in melting temperature suggesting that the powders were already in a high energy state prior to melting. -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent change in ΔH Number of days a fer treatment Lead Tin Figure 8: Percent change in ΔH as determined by SDTA. Acknowledgement We thank the staff of various laboratories for conducting various characterization experiments. We thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC Institute of Physics and Chinese academy of Sciences for permitting us to use PowderX software for analyzing XRD results. References 1. Rubik B 1994 Bioelectromagnetics applications in medicine. Alternative medicine: expanding medical horizons: a report to the National Institutes of Health on alternative medical systems and practices in the United States NIH publication no. 94-066. US Government Printing Offce Washington DC USA. 2. LaFleur K Cassady K Doud A Shades K Rogin E et al. 2013 Quadcopter control in three-dimensional space using a noninvasive motor imagery-based brain–computer interface. J Neural Eng. 3. http://www.trivediscience.com/materials-science/ 4. Trivedi MK Tallapragada RM 2008 A transcendental to changing metal powder characteristics. Met Pow Rep 63: 22-28 31. 5. Dabhade VV Trivedi MK Tallapragada RM 2009 Effect of external energy on the atomic crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth. Bull Mat Sci 32: 5471-5479. 6. Trivedi MK Tallapragada RM 2009 Effect of super consciousness external energy on atomic crystalline and powder characteristics of carbon allotrope powders. Mat Res Inno 13: 473-480. 7. Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J Material Sci Eng S11: 001. Submit your next manuscript and get advantages of OMICS Group submissions Unique features: • User friendly/feasible website-translation of your paper to 50 world’s leading languages • Audio Version of published paper • Digital articles to share and explore Special features: • 250 Open Access Journals • 20000 editorial team • 21 days rapid review process • Quality and quick editorial review and publication processing • Indexing at PubMed partial Scopus EBSCO Index Copernicus and Google Scholar etc • Sharing Option: Social Networking Enabled • Authors Reviewers and Editors rewarded with online Scientifc Credits • Better discount for your subsequent articles Submit your manuscript at: http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/submission Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead Powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000125

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