Effect of bio field treatment on characteristics of vanadium pentoxide

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Research Article Open Access Trivedi et al. J Material Sci Eng 2013 S:11 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2169-0022.S11-001 Research Article Open Access Material Science Engineering Special • Issue • 2013 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders Mahendra K Trivedi Shrikant Patil and Rama Mohan Tallapragada Trivedi foundation14747 N Northsight Blvd Suite 111-136 Scottsdale Az 85260 USA Corresponding author: Shrikant Patil Trivedi foundation14747 N Northsight Blvd Suite 111-136 Scottsdale Az 85260 USA Tel: +1-650-229-4487 E-mail: researchtrivedifoundation.org Received October 31 2012 Accepted December 28 2012 Published January 05 2013 Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J Material Sci Eng S11:001. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.S11-001 Copyright: © 2013 Trivedi MK et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction It is known that electrical currents along with associated magnetic felds are present in human bodies. Tese are complex and dynamic mostly likely due to dynamical processes such as heart and brain function blood and lymph fow ion transport across cell membranes and other biologic processes on many diferent scales 1. Bio feld is a cumulative efect exerted by these felds of human body on the surroundings. Typically it may act directly on molecular structures changing the conformation of molecules in functionally signifcant ways as well as may transfer bio-information through energy signals interacting directly with the energy felds of life. Mr. Mahendra. K. Trivedi is known to transform the characteristics of various living and non living materials through bio feld in his physical presence as well as through thought intervention. Te details of several scientifc investigations and the results in the form of original data are reported elsewhere 2-5. Te present paper reports the changes in the characteristics of Vanadium V Oxide powder afer exposure to the bio feld of Mr. Trivedi. Materials and Methods Vanadium pentoxideSigma Aldrich 98+ purity here aferwards referred to as vanadium oxide powders untreated control and treated by thought intervention through bio feld were subsequently characterized by Laser particle size analyser BET surface area Termal analysis and X-ray difraction. Tese were then compared and the changes in characteristics afer treatment were determined. Results Particle size distribution by laser difraction Typical data obtained using laser difraction is given in table 1.Te experiments were carried out for control day1 and treated powders afer 11 85 92 and 110 days respectively. Average particle size d50 and size exhibited by 99 of the powder particles d99 between treated and control powders were noted from the laser difraction data tables. Tese values are given for both control and treated samples in table 2. Te latter also gives the percent change Abstract Vanadium pentoxide powders are very useful in producing ferrous as well as aluminiumalloys inremoving carbon and sulphur and as catalysts in synthesizing ammonia and sulphuric acid. It is also used as corrosion inhibitor petroleum and chemical processing. In the present investigation V 2 O 5 powders are exposed to biofeld. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment upto a maximum of 15.9 in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease it should increase as particle size is decreased of 7.22 in 109 days indicating the surface densifcation/removal of sharp surface corners/formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofeld after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9 in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to biofeld after 28 104 124 and 139 days. These results indicate that the catalytic nature of vanadium pentoxide can be controlled by exposing to bio feld and using after a specifc number of days after exposure. Volume Size Distribution X 0 /µm Q3 X 0 /µm Q3 X 0 /µm Q3 X 0 /µm Q3 4.50 0.80 18.50 1.64 75.00 9.00 305.00 81.47 5.50 0.92 21.50 1.75 90.00 12.35 365.00 93.20 6.50 1.02 25.00 1.90 105.00 15.97 435.00 98.01 7.50 1.11 30.00 2.18 125.00 21.19 515.00 99.88 9.00 1.22 37.50 2.79 150.00 28.40 615.00 99.88 11.00 1.34 45.00 3.66 180.00 38.13 735.00 100.00 13.00 1.43 52.50 4.76 215.00 50.61 875.00 100.00 15.00 1.53 62.50 6.50 255.00 65.26 X 10 79.48 µm X 50 213.30 µm X 90 348.62 µm X 16 105.10 µm X 84 317.92 µm X 99 492.74 µm VMD 215 µm C_opt 24.62 Table 1: Various particle sizes and percent particles less than in control vanadium oxide as recorded by laser particle size analyzer. Typically 9.00 of the particles Q3 are present with volume size less than or equal to 75 micrometers x 0 and the average particle size x 50 is 213.30 micrometers.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J Material Sci Eng S11:001. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.S11-001 Page 2 of 4 Special • Issue • 2013 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal in d50 and d99 between various treated and control samples fgure 1. change in d 50 size100×d 50 treated–d 50 control/d 50 control change in d 99 size100×d 99 treated–d 99 control/d 99 control BET Surface Area Tis is a well-known technique of physical adsorption of helium gas molecules on a solid surface. From the volume of gas adsorbed on a given mass of powder the specifc surface area can be computed. When a powder particle possesses high internal energy/rough and irregular surfaces/ fne size it exhibits a large BET surface area expressed in m 2 /g. A high surface area powder is chemically and thermally very reactive and can be used as catalysts paints pharmaceuticals etc. change in surface area100×surface area treated–surface area control/surface area control Surface areas had decreased by 1.41 4.11 and 7.22 as the number of days afer treatment changed to 14 95 and 109 respectively. Te decrease may be due to observed decrease in fne particles d50 and increase in coarse particles d99 as shown in fgure 2. Scanning electron microscopy Both control and afer 20 days treated Vanadium oxide particles when examined in a scanning electron microscope did not show signifcant changes Table 3. Rather both the powders showed agglomerated geometric shapes with particle sizes in the range 0.5-150 micro meters and highly agglomerated intra particle boundaries Table 4 and Figure 3. Termo gravimetric analysis Mettler’s simultaneous Termo gravimetric analysis and Diferential Termo gravimetric analysis combined TGA and DTG unit was used for the experiments. Te heating range and heating rate employed were respectively Room temperature to 900° Celsius and 10° Celsius/minute in Nitrogen atmosphere. From table 5 it can be noticed that the peak temperature in treated vanadium oxide afer 57 days had increased by 9.9 from 666.87°C to 732.62°C. Te decrease in mass of the sample was not found to be signifcant. X-ray difraction X-ray Difraction XRD technique is sensitive at the atomic and crystal structure level. X-rays incident upon a material are difracted by the atoms in various crystal planes and the wavelength and intensity of difraction beams are monitored. Te results are obtained in the form of a table as well as a chart of intensity of the spectral peaks on y axis and 2θ twice the difracted angle on the x axis Bragg’s law states that for conditions of x-ray difraction 2d sin θn λ where λ is the wavelength of the incident x-rays θ is the angle of difraction and n is the order of spectrum usually taken to be 1. Te data obtained are compared with standard database of powder difraction patterns of Te International Centre for Difraction Data ICDD to identify the Miller indices the numbers that indicate the plane inside a crystal on which the difraction takes place. Normally X-ray difraction is used to identify the crystal lattice compute the lattice parameters a b and c which represent the distance between atoms on geometrical sides of a unit cell of a crystal and α β and γ the angles between the sides concentration assumed to be proportional to the intensity of the strongest peak corresponding to the substance in question and average crystallite size the size of a number of unit cells with orientations same in all three dimensions. Tis is also known as the size of the single crystal and can be obtained from the width of the peak at half maximum height. X-ray difraction in the present experiments is used to evaluate apart from the usual parameters the parameters that are related to energy changes with in and between atoms such as the efective nuclear charge on the atom the change in atomic weight the number of neutrons and protons etc. A summary of the data obtained afer analysis is given in the Table 5. Te data is obtained for control sample day 1 and samples treated with biofeld afer 28 104 124 and 139 days. Both the control and treated samples are analysed using powder Phillips Holland PW 1710 XRD system. A copper anode with nickel flter was used. Te wavelength of the radiation is 1.54056 Å 10 -10 m or 10 -8 cm. Data analysis Te data is obtained in the form of 2θ Vs Intensity chart as well as a detailed table containing 2θ d value Å peak width 2θ peak intensity counts relative Intensity etc. Te data was then analysed using PowderX sofware to obtain lattice parameters and unit cell volume. θ 0 values are converted from degrees to radians by multiplying with π/ 180 or with 0.0175. Similarly the peak width at half maximum is also converted to radians by multiplying with 0.0175. Ten the crystallite sizekλ/bCos θ where λ is the wavelength of x-radiation used and is 1.54056×10 -10 m and k is the equipment constant with a value 0.94. Te obtained crystallite size will be in nano meters or 10 -9 meters. Crystallite size in most ceramics can correspond to size of single crystal arrangement of repetitive number of unit cells with same planar orientation. In metals on the other hand crystallite size can also correspond to sub grain size in the single crystal. Percent change in lattice parameter It is the ratio of diference in lattice parameter of control and treated samples to the parameter of control sample expressed as percent. Typically for the lattice parameter ‘a’ this is equal to100×Δa/ac where Δaat-ac/ac. NUMBER OF DAYS AFTER TREATMENT AVERAGE PARTICLE SIZE d50 Micrometers AVERAGE PARTICLE SIZE d99 Micrometers PERCENT CHANGE BETWEEN TREATED and CONTROL d50 PERCENT CHANGE BETWEEN TREATED and CONTROL d99 1 213.3 432 11 222.5 492.7 4.3 14.1 85 213 489.3 -0.1 13.3 92 200 432 -6.2 0.0 110 179.4 499.9 -15.9 15.7 Table 2: Particle size and percent change in particle size of bio feld treated vanadium oxide powders and control powders.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J Material Sci Eng S11:001. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.S11-001 Page 3 of 4 Special • Issue • 2013 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal Also known as strain when multiplied with the elastic modulus it gives the force applied on the atoms. When the force is compressive the change is negative while a positive value indicates a stretching or tensile force. Te ratio diference in atomic weight between control and treated samples to the atomic weight of control sample is expressed as per cent change in atomic weight. 100×ΔM/Mc where ΔMMt- Mc/Mc. Tis value also represents the percent change in sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom Figure 4 and 5. From table 5 it was found that lattice parameter and unit cell volume increased with a resulting decrease in density mass of unit cell/volume of unit cell. Te crystallite size size of single crystal grain decreased indicating that the stresses due to expansion in unit cells might have caused fracture at weaker planes in the single crystal. Decrease in charge in the atom indicates that energy is wasconverted to mass as shown by increase in atomic weight. Conclusions • Laser difraction had indicated that both the average particle 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 d50 d99 Time afer treatment days Change in Partcle size Figure 1: Percent change in d 50 and d 99 of treated Vanadium Oxide powders with change in number of days after bio feld treatment. Both d 50 and d 99 showed an increase immediately after bio feld treatment in 11 days followed by steady decrease till 85 days of treatment.After 85 days both the particle sizes rapidly decreased. However d99 showed an increase possibly due to agglomeration of a number of small and medium particles. 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 Percentege Number of days after treatment 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 percent change in surface area percent change in Particle size d50 Figure 2: Percent change in particle size d 50 and surface area of treated Vanadium Oxide powders with change in number of days after treatment. As the decrease in surface area suggests an increase in particle size the observed decrease in particle size may be due to lose agglomerates where the gas is adsorbed in the internal boundaries also. CONTROL DAY 1 20 DAYS AFTER TREATMENT 15kV X5 . 000 5µm 0001 SUK-PHY 15kV X2 . 000 10µm 0001 SUK-PHY 15kV X100 10µm 0001 SUK-PHY 15kV X200 10µm 0001 SUK-PHY Figure 3: Scanning electron micrographs of control and bio feld treated powders at two different magnifcations showing no signifcant change in size of control and treated powders as well as agglomerates. POWDER/ CHARACTERISTIC TREATMENT SURFACE AREA OF VANADIUM OXIDEPOWDERS BET Surface area m 2 /g CONTROL 1 day 3.74 TREATED 14 days 3.69 TREATED 95 days 3.59 TREATED 109days 3.47 POWDER/ CHARACTERISTIC TREATMENT VANADIUM OXIDE Change in surface area TREATED 14 days -1.41 TREATED 95 days -4.11 TREATED 109days -7.22 Table 3: Surface area and percent change in surface area of control and bio feld treated vanadium oxide powders. Powder/ characteristic Vanadium v oxide Control Vanadium v oxide 57 days after treatment Peak onset c 624.60 718.53 Peak c 666.87 732.62 Peak end pt. C 723.23 757.67 Peak width c 98.63 39.14 Change in weight at onset 100.41 95.04 Change in weight at end pt. 100.46 94.54 Total change in weight 0.05 -0.50 Table 4: DTG-TGA analysis of control and biofeld treated vanadium oxide powders indicating increase in exothermic peak temperature and relatively no signifcant change in the weight of treated powders. Crystal/ atomic characteristic computed from x-ray diffraction data Number of days after treatment 1 28 104 124 139 Lattice parameter ‘a’ x 10 -8 cm 11.5120 11.5199 11.5574 11.4709 11.5397 change in ‘a’ 0.33 -0.43 0.17 0.15 Volume of unit cell x 10 -24 179.4 180.1 178.2 179.3 180.1 change in volume of unit cell 0.40 -0.65 -0.02 0.39 Crystallite size ‘g’ x 10 -9 m 84.94 70.78 84.94 60.67 141.55 change in ‘g’ -16.67 0.01 -28.57 66.65 change in molecular weight weight of neutrons and protons mol 0.401 -0.653 -0.020 0.394 change in density -0.399 0.658 0.020 -0.392 Table 5: XRD analysis of control and biofeld treated vanadium oxide powders. Using Powderx software volume of unit cell crystallite size molecular weight and density are evaluated.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J Material Sci Eng S11:001. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.S11-001 Page 4 of 4 Special • Issue • 2013 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal size d59 and d99 showed an increase immediately afer bio feld treatment mostly due to agglomeration of particles. Afer 80 days of treatment the agglomerates of fne particles were broken while coarse particles further increased in size. • As the number of days afer bio feld treatment changed from 14 through 95 to109 the surface area had decreased by 1.41 4.11 and 7.22 respectively. Te decrease may be due to observed decrease in fne particles d50 and increase in coarse particles d99. • Te peak temperature in bio feld treated vanadium oxide afer 57 days had increased by 9.9 from 666.87C to 732.62C. Te decrease in mass of the sample was not found to be signifcant. • Analysis of x–ray difraction data led to the following inferences treatment with bio feld initially decreased the Lattice parameter unit cell volume molecular weight and crystallite size while the density had increased. Exactly reverse had occurred afer 124 days of treatment. Te decreased crystallite size indicates the presence of stresses due to expansion in unit cells which may have caused fracture at weaker planes in the single crystal and decreased molecular weight indicates that mass is converted to energy. Acknowledgement We thank Mr. Harish Shettigar for his active help and the staff of various laboratories for conducting various characterization experiments. We also thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC Institute of Physics and Chinese academy of Sciences for permitting us to use PowderX software for analysing XRD results. References 1. Rubik B Becker RO Flower RG Hazlewood CF Liboff AR et al. Bioelectromagnetics Applications in Medicine. Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons A Report to the National Institutes of Health on Alternative Medical Systems and Practices in the United States. 2. http://trivediscience.com/mahendra-trivedi/Materials-Science 3. Technical trends 2008 Real-time results put pressure on fne grain theory. Metal Powder Report 63: 24-31. 4. Dabhade VV Tallapragada RMR Trivedi MK 2009 Effect of external energy on atomic crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders. Bull Mater Sci 32: 471-479. 5. Trivedi MK Tallapragada RR 2009 Effect of superconsciousness external energy on atomic crystalline and powder characteristics of carbon allotrope powders. Mater Res Innov 13: 473-480. Submit your next manuscript and get advantages of OMICS Group submissions Unique features: • User friendly/feasible website-translation of your paper to 50 world’s leading languages • Audio Version of published paper • Digital articles to share and explore Special features: • 250 Open Access Journals • 20000 editorial team • 21 days rapid review process • Quality and quick editorial review and publication processing • Indexing at PubMed partial Scopus DOAJ EBSCO Index Copernicus and Google Scholar etc • Sharing Option: Social Networking Enabled • Authors Reviewers and Editors rewarded with online Scientifc Credits • Better discount for your subsequent articles Submit your manuscript at: http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/submission Citation: Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J Material Sci Eng S11:001. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.S11-001 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 Change in characteristic after treatment Number of days after treatment 0 50 100 150 CHANGE IN ‘a’ CHANGE IN VOLUME OF UNIT CELL CHANGE IN MOLECULAR WEIGHT MOl CHANGE IN DENSITY Figure 4: Changes in unit cell volume lattice constant ’a’ and molecular weight of treated Vanadium Oxide powders are similar while that exhibited by density is opposite. 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 CHANGE IN CRYSTALLITE SIZE AFTER TREATMENT NUMBER OF DAYS AFTER TREATMENT 0 50 100 150 Figure 5: Change in crystallite size of treated Vanadium Oxide powders showing a sharp increase after 124 days of treatment indicating grain crystal growth.

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