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Forschungsdesign Week 2, 30-April :

Forschungsdesign Week 2, 30-April Quantitative vs. qualitative studies ? 1

Concepts covered in today’s session:

Concepts covered in today’s session Quantitative & qualitative research Inductive & deductive methods Mixed methods 3 rd paradigm Theory & hypothesis generation Theory & hypothesis testing Triangulation 2

Contrasting two paradigms: Quantitative vs. qualitative research:

Contrasting two paradigms: Quantitative vs. qualitative research Based on information that is quantifiable Involves collecting primarily numerical data & analysing it using statistical methods Deductive  hypothesis derived from know theory Researcher is able to test & validate already constructed theories about how & why phenomena occur Based on how something is Entails collecting primarily textual data & examining it using interpretive analysis Inductive  theory derived from research results Researcher can use the primarily qualitative method of grounded theory to inductively generate a tentative but explanatory theory about a phenomenon Quantitative research Qualitative research 3

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps):

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps) Deductive method Inductive method State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature). Collect data to test the hypothesis. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis. Observe the world. Search for a pattern in what is observed. Make a generalisation about what is occurring. 4

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps):

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps) Deductive method Inductive method State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature). Collect data to test the hypothesis. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis. Observe the world. Search for a pattern in what is observed. Make a generalisation about what is occurring. 5

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps):

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps) Deductive method Inductive method State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature). Collect data to test the hypothesis. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis. Observe the world. Search for a pattern in what is observed. Make a generalisation about what is occurring. “Top-down method” 6

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps):

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps) Deductive method Inductive method State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature). Collect data to test the hypothesis. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis. Observe the world. Search for a pattern in what is observed. Make a generalisation about what is occurring. “Top-down method” 7

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps):

Scientific method: Deductive vs. Inductive (3 steps) Deductive method Inductive method State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature). Collect data to test the hypothesis. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis. Observe the world. Search for a pattern in what is observed. Make a generalisation about what is occurring. “Top-down method” “Bottom-up method” 8

The research wheel:

The research wheel Virtually any application of science includes the use of both the deductive and the inductive approaches to the scientific method either in a single study or over time as seen in the research wheel above. The inductive method is as “bottom up” method that is especially useful for generating theories and hypotheses; the deductive method is a “top down” method that is especially useful for testing theories and hypotheses. 9

Deductive or inductive? Quantitative or qualitative?:

Deductive or inductive? Quantitative or qualitative? ACTIVITY: Examine these abstracts. What kind of method do you think the researcher would use? Deductive or inductive? Be able to justify your answer. What kind of data does the researcher use? Does this study rely on quantitative data or qualitative data? Do you see any scope for using both quantitative and qualitative data? 10

Abstracts:

Abstracts 11

What happens when you mix quantitative & qualitative studies?:

What happens when you mix quantitative & qualitative studies? QUANT + QUAL = 3 paradigm “mixed methods” From Angouri reading for this week: Mixed methods ‘is not to be mistaken for “anything goes disposition” and should not be seen as an unstructured ‘fusion’ of quantitative & qualitative research or as just the additive ‘sum’ of both paradigms. 12

Advantages of mixed methods:

Advantages of mixed methods Can answer a broader & more complete range of research questions because the researcher is not confined to a single method or approach Can provide stronger evidence for a conclusion through convergence & corroboration of findings = principle of triangulation Qualitative & quantitative research used together produces more complete knowledge necessary to inform theory & practice 13

Triangulation… :

Triangulation… Entails the use of multiple, independent methods of obtaining data in a single investigation in order to arrive at the same research findings Three types of triangulation Theoretical triangulation  multiple perspectives to analyse the same set of data Investigator triangulation  multiple observers or interviewers Methodological triangulation  different measures or resarch methods to investigate a particular phenomenon 14

Broad research areas: Choose one!!:

Broad research areas: Choose one!! 15

PowerPoint Presentation:

16

Thought experiment:

Thought experiment You have chosen a broad research area in linguistics. Create a research scenario based on the area, e.g. Research area: language attitudes Scenario: Attitudes of Norwegians towards the growing influence of English In your group, determine how you could investigate the scenario you have created: Quantitatively Qualitatively (Using mixed methods) do this if you have time What would be the research question(s) motivating your study? Are the RQs different depending on your approach (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods) 17

Homework:

Homework 18

PowerPoint Presentation:

19

What in the world is THAT??:

What in the world is THAT?? 20

Research vintage style:

Research vintage style 21

Card catalog:

Card catalog 22

How you can use index cards:

How you can use index cards 23 N.B. See your course outline under Resources > Index cards

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