EC 2012 - PPT 1, Week 1

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Course introduction

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English in the Caribbean:

English in the Caribbean SS 2012 Week 1: Introduction & Orientation

Locating the space:

Locating the space Where are you from? The Caribbean Activity: If someone you were talking to did not know where the Caribbean was, how would you describe the location of the region to him/her? What are some languages spoken in the Caribbean? Guess how may languages are spoken in the Caribbean.

Caribbean = chain of islands between USA (Florida) and South America (e.g. Venezuela):

Caribbean = chain of islands between USA (Florida) and South America (e.g. Venezuela)

Official languages in the Caribbean:

Official languages in the Caribbean Source: http://www.scl-online.net//scllanguage_home_en.php?id=4

Languages spoken in the Caribbean:

Languages spoken in the Caribbean Source: http://www.scl-online.net//scllanguage_home_en.php?id=4

59 Living languages:

59 Living languages 22 indigenous Amerindian languages 5 European languages 21 creole languages 15 English-lexicon 4 French-lexicon 1 Iberian-lexicon 1 Dutch-lexicon (almost extinct) 4 immigrant languages (post-emancipation) Bhojpuri Javanese Hakka Yoruba 4 sign languages 3 unclassified languages Creole languages include Haitian Kreyol , St. Lucian Kwéyòl , Papiamentu, Antiguan Creole, Belize Kriol, Jamaican Creole/Patois, Guyanese Creolese , Vincentian Creole, and Berbice Dutch (on the verge of extinction). Source: http://www.scl-online.net//scllanguage_home_en.php?id=4

Greater Antilles & Bahamas:

Greater Antilles & Bahamas Source: http://www.wycliffecaribbean.org/maps.html

Lesser Antilles:

Lesser Antilles Source: http://www.wycliffecaribbean.org/maps.html

Central America (Caribbean Sea):

Central America (Caribbean Sea) Source: http://www.wycliffecaribbean.org/maps.html

Southern Caribbean (mainland):

Southern Caribbean (mainland) Source: http://www.wycliffecaribbean.org/maps.html

Linguistic landscapes explored in this course:

Linguistic landscapes explored in this course

Linguistic landscapes explored in this course:

Linguistic landscapes explored in this course

Why these territories?:

Why these territories? To represent a range of creole scenarios in the Caribbean since the area is not linguistically homogenous Country Creole range Jamaica Basilectal rural creole with some geographical variation— mesolectal urban creole —local Standard English Guyana Basilectal rural crole —intermediate urban creole —local Standard English Barbados Mesolectal creole used in both urban & rural areas—local Standard English Trinidad Mesolectal creole used in both urban & rural areas—local Standard English St. Lucia Kwéyòl (French-based)—vernacular English—local Standard English Suriname Sranan Tongo (English-based creole )—Dutch

Course description:

Course description This course surveys varieties of English spoken in the Caribbean—namely in the territories of Trinidad and Jamaica , and to a lesser extent, Guyana , Barbados , and St.Lucia . Fundamental to this course is the use of genuine cultural artifacts—such as musical compositions, festival arts, literary works, and folklore— to contextualise the student’s understanding of language usage in the Caribbean. Themes such as creole development, language prestige, and socio-pragmatic conventions form the core content of this course. Overall, students taking this course will gain a deeper appreciation for the cultural and linguistic diversity of the Anglophone Caribbean.

What are pidgins & creoles?:

What are pidgins & creoles? “Strictly speaking, creoles and pidgins are new language varieties which developed out of contacts between colonial non-standard varieties of a European language and several non-European languages around the Atlantic and in the Indian and Pacific oceans during the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries” ( Mufwene 2008) Food for thought! Is there anything you find striking about Mufwene’s definition?

Pidgins vs. creoles at a glance:

Pidgin Creole Contact language that arose naturally Yes Yes Has native speakers Not usually Always Linguistic form & grammar are… Reduced Expanded Restricted in context of use Yes No Stable & independent norm No Yes Fully adequate natural language No Yes Pidgins vs. creoles at a glance http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~patrickp/Courses/PCs/IntroPidginsCreoles.htm

What is the creole continuum?:

What is the creole continuum? It is a metaphor that can be used to explain variation in creole speaking communities acrolect ===== mesolect ===== basilect standard variety most creole variety Lexifier language Who proposed this concept? David DeCamp is credited with its modern incarnation although this idea had been around for some time Which situations can we apply the continuum to?

Kachru’s (1985, 1992) “Three Circles” model:

Kachru’s (1985, 1992) “Three Circles” model The most influential model of the spread of English Kachru divides World Englishes into three concentric circles: Inner Circle Outer Circle Expanding Circle earlier > recent

Why three circles?:

Why three circles? What do the three circles represent? “the types of spread, the patterns of acquisition, and the functional allocation of English in diverse cultural contexts” Kachru’s views are quasi-political: superior status should NOT be assigned to ENL countries norms and standards should not be determined by Inner Circle countries English belongs to all those who use it earlier > recent

Food for thought:

Food for thought Based on your understanding of the of linguistic landscape in the Caribbean, why would it be challenging to fit English- creole speaking, postcolonial territories within Kachru’s framework? earlier > recent Inner circle Outer circle Expanding circle ≈ ENL countries ≈ ESL countries ≈ EFL countries Norm providing Norm developing Norm dependent

What we touched on today:

What we touched on today Location of the Caribbean Linguistic diversity in the region Basic definition of creoles & pidgins Creole continuum: acrolect , mesolect , basilect Kachru’s 3 Circles Model

Homework:

Homework Go to the course website and complete the Wiki for HW1. Due date: Tuesday 8 th May

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