human behavior


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Leadership Theories:

Leadership Theories Leadership theories explain the concept and practices adopted to become a leader.

1. Traits theories Leadership:

1. Traits theories Leadership Characteristics that determine a good leader. Personality Dominance and personal presence Charisma Self confidence Achievement Ability to formulate a clear vision

2. Behavioral Theories Leadership:

2. Behavioral Theories Leadership Focus on what the leader does and how they behave, particularly in relation to subordinates. Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things.

(2) Types of leaders evolved in behavioral theories of leadership: :

(2) Types of leaders evolved in behavioral theories of leadership: 1. Work- centered leaders. (task-forced) Autocratic: Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else. High degree of dependency on the leader. Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff. May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively.

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2. Employee- centered leaders. (follower focused) Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct

3. Situational Theories of Leadership :

3. Situational Theories of Leadership Focus on the importance of situational factors in explaining leadership effectiveness. Situational leadership theory is based on the ways people respond to working and being led in groups.

A. Fiedler’s Leadership Theories:

A. Fiedler’s Leadership Theories Effective groups depend upon a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and give influence to the leader.

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Three situational factors combine to determine whether considerate or structuring leader styles are appropriate: 1. Position power 2. Task structure 3. Leader-member relations

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Modern version: 1. Leader Match Program 2. Cognitive Resource Theory

B. House Path-Goal Theory:

B. House Path-Goal Theory Leaders are effective because of their positive impact on the follower’s motivation, ability to perform and satisfaction. The theory was developed by Robert House and has its roots in the expectancy theory of motivation. The theory is based on the premise that an employee’s perception of expectancies between his effort and performance is greatly affected by a leader’s behavior .

4. New leadership Theories:

4. New leadership Theories Leadership theories that emerge in the 1980’s which have with them similar or common themes.

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A. Transformational: Widespread changes to a business or organisation Requires: Long term strategic planning Clear objectives Clear vision Leading by example – walk the walk Efficiency of systems and processes

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B. Visionary Leadership.2 - Ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision for the future for an organization.

Trust as the Foundation of leadership:

Trust as the Foundation of leadership Trust is a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically. 5 key dimensions in concept of trust: - Integrity - Competence Consistency - Loyalty Openness

Power as the Central Element of Leadership Relations :

Power as the Central Element of Leadership Relations Power – is the ability of one person or department in an organization to influence other people to bring about desired outcomes .

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The End.

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