Modals : Modals Carmen Torres © Creative commons What are modal verbs? : What are modal verbs? They are:
Would Ought to Modal verbs are sometimes referred to as
Modal Auxiliary verbs because they help other verbs They are Auxiliary verbs that provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence How do we use modals? : How do we use modals? Example: Mary could play the piano They do not accept conjugation
They do not need other auxiliary verbs © Creative commons Form : Form He can ski He cans ski or He can skis
Would you like to come with me?
Do you would like to come with me?
They can’t be serious
They don’t can be serious There is no “s” in singular
There is no “do / does” in the question
There is no “don’t / doesn’t” in the negative © Creative commons Form : Form to can / caning to must /musting
She must study
We should have gone the other way
He could play football in his youth (general ability) Modal verbs do not have infinitives or –ing forms Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to Form : Form Modal verbs do not have all the tenses Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses
Can is completed with be able to
Must is completed with have to They can play the piano They will be able to play the piano in the future You must come early You had to come early yesterday What do they express? : What do they express? They can have different meanings depending on the situations they are used
To understand it better we are going to divide them into 3 categories
Single Concept Modal: they have one meaning
Double Concept Modal: they have two meanings
Modals in past: They are used to express a situation in the past Categories : Categories Single Concept Modal : Single Concept Modal Double Concept Modal : Double Concept Modal Double Concept Modal : Double Concept Modal Modals in the Past : Modals in the Past They are modals referred to actions that happened in the past
It must have been a difficult decision
They should have invited her to their wedding MODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle Modals in Past : Modal + have + past participle : Modals in Past : Modal + have + past participle A last tip : A last tip There are few verbs which often serve as modals too.
These are modal-like verbs They need to be conjugated Modals-like verbs : Modals-like verbs Practise : Practise My son ___ be home by now. Where can he be?
a. Have to b. Would c. Should d. Could
I think your thumb is broken. You ___ go to the emergency room.
a. Might b. could c. ought to d. can
If you are interested in losing weight, you ______ try this new diet.
a. Could b. mustn’t c. don’t have to d. had to
Johnnie’s fallen down the stairs! I ________ call an ambulance!
a. Will b. might c. may d. ought to
You _______ come too early. We won’t leave until 9 o’clock.
a. Has to b. must c. needn’t d. can’t Practise : Practise Children ________ be accompanied by an adult at the zoo.
a. Ought to b. must c. would d. mustn’t
You _________ talk during tests. It’s forbidden!
a. don’t have to b. mustn’t c. couldn’t d. ought to
I can feel the heat. We _________ be near the fire.
a. Can b. would c. must d. have to
They ________ hear him because he was whispering.
a. Wouldn’t b. mustn’t c. shouldn’t d. couldn’t
You’ve never heard of Britney Spears! You ________ be serious!
a. Must b. had to c. can’t d. shouldn’t Practise : Practise __________ you like to have dinner with me tonight?
a. Could b. may c. should d. would
You _________ let him hear about the party tomorrow. It’s a surprise!
a. mustn’t b. wouldn’t c. couldn’t d. can
__________ I speak to the Chief of Police, please?
a. Must b. May c. Would d. Need
He has arrived late. He _______ missed the bus
a. Must have b. Should have c. Could have d. must More practise : More practise Re-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning.
I suggest that you get a good lawyer!
A university degree isn’t necessary for that job.
Perhaps my father will pick you up.
My father _______________________________________
4. Eating is forbidden in class!
You ___________________________________________ should get a lawyer needn’t have a university degree for that job
don’t have to have a university… may / might pick you up mustn’t eat in class More practise : More practise Re-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning.
Look at his dirty clothes! I’m sure he is a poor person.
I don’t believe that the legend of Hercules is true because there’re many contradictions.
The legend of Hercules ____________________________ must be a poor person can’t be true Use your imagination : Use your imagination Think about these situations and create a sentence using modals.
We are going to Paris for a weekend. (Make suggestions about things to do)
We start school in September. (Talk about necessity)
Margaret is a very talented sportswoman. (Talk about ability)
You have just won the lottery! (Talk about possibility)
Peter has got a headache and a congested nose. (Give him some advice)
You want to borrow your uncle’s Mercedes Benz. (Ask for permission politely) Possible answers : Possible answers 1. We could visit the Louvre / We should go up the Eiffel Tower 2. We have to buy a new notebook 3. She can speak 3 languages! / She is able to play the piano and the violin 4. I might stop working / I may buy a new car / I can travel to New York 5. You should see a doctor / You ought to drink hot tea 6. Can I borrow your car, please? or May I borrow your car, please?