African Art and Music : African Art and Music Angela Hawkins
Professor Heather Sayre-Jordan
Olivet Nazarene University
April 20, 2009 Beautiful Expression of a People The curious beauty of African music is that it uplifts even as it tells a sad tale. You may be poor, you may have only a ramshackle house, you may have lost your job, but that song gives you hope.” Nelson Mandela : The curious beauty of African music is that it uplifts even as it tells a sad tale. You may be poor, you may have only a ramshackle house, you may have lost your job, but that song gives you hope.” Nelson Mandela Introduction : Introduction What is African Art?
Vivid, diverse, bold, and complex
Human and spiritual
Beadwork, paintings, ceramics, tribal masks
Influential to Western artists
Ancient to modern
What is African Music?
Social, ritual, ceremonial
Distinct singing styles
Variety of instruments-percussion
Influential to Western Music (Light From Africa Foundation, 2009)
(Funk & Wagnall's New World Encyclopedia, 2002) History of African Art : History of African Art Earliest from prehistoric times.
Cave paintings showing men and animals on walls
Mostly 19th century and later
Early—stone, bronze, terra cotta, wood
Early– wood was favored, but most destroyed by climate
A lot of tribal gods and ancestral spirits destroyed in fire by missionaries
Modern—very diverse—basket weaving, wood carving, painting, ceramics (WikiProject Africa Collaboration, 2009)
(African Art, n.d.) History of African Art : History of African Art Timeline of important historical events (Finnerty, 2007)
(Lemonick & Bjerklie, 1995)
(WikiProject Africa Collaboration, 2009)
(African Art, n.d.) Early Art Facts : Early Art Facts Earliest remaining art made by Nok culture 500 BCE in Northern Nigeria
Art mostly made from Terra Cotta
Ife culture in the 13th century made structured heads of bronze.
Used a lost wax process which consisted of modeling wax figure, covering in clay, baking, wax melts & runs out holes in bottom of clay, fill in holes and pour in liquid bronze
Art of Benin consisted of bronze altarpiece heads
Beni artists also made bronze plaques that were set into mud walls and pillars (African Art, n.d.) Characteristics of African Art : Characteristics of African Art Formal innovation- artists are encouraged to be diverse and creative. They don’t usually follow guidelines
Tend to use Abstract rather than realistic- artwork to convey message or idea
Sculpture is emphasized- most drawn in 3 includes clothing worn for ceremony. So the performer in essence becomes a sculpture of art themselves
Formal innovation- artists are encouraged to be diverse and creative. They don’t usually follow guidelines
Tend to use Abstract rather than realistic- artwork to convey message or idea
Sculpture is emphasized- most drawn in 3 includes clothing worn for ceremony. So the performer in essence becomes a sculpture of art themselves (African Art, n.d.) African Masks : African Masks “Masks of Africa are some of the most valuable and sought after pieces of art by art collectors.”
Portray faces of gods and spirits (It is believed the spirit overtakes the person wearing the mask.)
Made of metal, fabric or wood
Used for agricultural festivals, rituals, cults and ceremonies
Traced back to Paleolithic times (Masks and More Masks, n.d) Example of African Art : Example of African Art Benin bronze Example of African Art : Example of African Art Mask, Tsogo peoples, Ogowe River region, Gabon
Late 19th to early 20th century
National Museum of African Art Example of African Art : Example of African Art Traditional dogon masque
Tirelli, Pays Dogon, Mali (Wikimedia Commons, 2006) Example of African Art : Example of African Art Modern sculpture from National Museum of African Art Influence on 19th-20th Century Western Art : Influence on 19th-20th Century Western Art African art greatly influenced and inspired some of our most famous Western artists
Visual art became more expressive, abstract, with organization and reorganization of forms and emotional and psychological exploration. (Wikipedia, 2009) Picasso : Picasso Title: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Year: 1907 Matisse : Matisse Title: Dance II
Year: 1909-1910 Paul Gauguin : Paul Gauguin Title: Spirit of the Dead Watching
Year: 1892 Modigliani : Modigliani Title: Caryatid III
Year: 1913 History of African Music : History of African Music Very intertwined with African dance—pictures of dancing found on rock paintings from 6000-4000 BC
Drums used from 10th century AD
Bells used by 15th century
Benin bronze plaques show drums, horns, bells, and lutes
Migration brought spread of musical instruments over continent
Use of lamellaphones (aka African thumb pianos) started 17th -18th centuries, followed by xylophones
Masai choral style has had strong influence on vocal music.
Eventually, use of flutes, pipes, trumpets, and electric instruments like guitars became popular. (Encyclopedia Britannica , 2009) African Music and Dance : African Music and Dance Music, dance and storytelling in ancient and modern times remain a part of the everyday life in ancient African society.
It is part of ceremonies, such as the child’s naming ceremony, religious ceremonies and funerals.
Since much of their history is passed down through the generations is orally conveyed, listening is important skill taught to children.
The modern shift to writing down African music is controversial, as some of the polythemic patterns cannot be transcribed easily to paper. (Encyclopedia Britannica , 2009) African Music and Dance : African Music and Dance “In Africa it is unrealistic to separate music from dance or from bodily movement.”
See below for a great example of African music, both vocal and instrumental , and dance. (Encyclopedia Britannica , 2009)
(youtube.com, 2009) (Click control, not picture) Modern African Music : Modern African Music Choral music is one of the musical forms that is written and sung by many in Africa, with many composers coming from this country and includes four parts singing as in the singing of hymns.
Some of the indigenous religious practices in Africa have been influenced by Christian, Islamic and other world religion practices, and have made an impression on African religious musical styles.
Some that hear African music interpret the music as rather monotonous, static and inactive~ indicating the lack of understanding and appreciation of African musical subtleties and the language of performance.
African popular music is full of energy and diversity.
A growing number of African artists have answered the call for “authentic” African music in the world music market. African musical influence today continues to be seen in many ways: in Jazz, with its beginnings traced to Negro musicians in the French Quarter of New Orleans around 1890; Reggie, Rhythm and Blues, Hip Hop and Rap all continuing to play a role in shaping the world’s music. (You are listening to Ladysmith Black Mombazo) References : References African Art (n.d.) Retrieved April 4, 2009 from http://www.arthistoryguide.com/African_art.aspx
African Art (n.d.) Retrieved April 4, 2009 fromhttp://www.historyteacher.net/GlobalHistory- 1/Readings/African%20Art.htm
African Masks History and Meaning (n.d.) Retrieved April 5, 2009 from http://www.rebirth.co.za/African_mask_history_and_meaning.htm
African Music and Dance. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia database.
African music. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/719112/African-music
Finnerty, A. (2007, May 24). Africa, Where Art History's Timeline Is Anything but Straight. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. D.7. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database.
In Cultural Context. http://web3.unt.edu/news/print.cfm?story=10135
Lemonick, M., & Bjerklie, D. (1995, February 13). Ancient odysseys. (cover story). Time, 145(6), 64. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Military & Government Collection database.
Light From Africa Foundation. (2009). African Ceramic Art History. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Light From Africa Foundation Web site: http://www.lightfromafrica.org/Art/Preview.asp?P=BuyArt&S P=3&PageID=12
Masks and More Masks (n.d.) Retrieved April 5, 2009 from http://www.mask-and-more-masks.com/masks-of- africa.htmlBibliography: Exploring Africa. http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/m13/notes.php
Memory of African Culture. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from http://www.memoryofafricanculture.org
WikiProject Africa Collaberation. (2009). African Art. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_art