Archaeology in Pompeii

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Changing methods of 19th and 20th century archaeologists and their contribution to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum : 

Changing methods of 19th and 20th century archaeologists and their contribution to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum

A. Wallace-Hadrill: “It [Pompeii] is at once the most studied and the least understood of sites. Universally familiar, its excavation and scholarship prove a nightmare of omissions and disasters.” : 

A. Wallace-Hadrill: “It [Pompeii] is at once the most studied and the least understood of sites. Universally familiar, its excavation and scholarship prove a nightmare of omissions and disasters.”

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? From ancient Greek: ‘arkhaios’ means ‘ancient’ ‘logia’ means knowledge

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Archaeology is the scientific study of peoples of the past... their culture and their relationship with their environment. The purpose of archaeology is to understand how humans in the past interacted with their environment, and to preserve this history for present and future learning." Larry J. Zimmerman

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Historical archaeology is more than just a treasure hunt. It is a challenging search for clues to the people, events, and places of the past." Society for Historical Archaeology

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Archaeology is the scientific study of past cultures and the way people lived based on the things they left behind." Alabama Archaeology

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "[Archaeology is] the most mind-numbing job on the planet" Bill Watterson

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? Archaeology is the only branch of anthropology where we kill our informants in the process of studying them." Kent Flannery

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "[Archaeology] is not what you find, it’s what you find out." David Hurst Thomas

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Archaeology is the search for fact, not truth." Indiana Jones

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Archaeology is the only discipline that seeks to study human behaviour and thought without having any direct contact with either." Bruce G. Trigger

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Archaeology is our voyage to the past, where we discover who we were and therefore who we are." Camille Paglia

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "Archaeology is our voyage to the past, where we discover who we were and therefore who we are." Camille Paglia

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? There are three stages to the archaeological process... Surveying Excavation Analysis

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology?

The Archaeologists… : 

The Archaeologists… Pompeii has attracted archaeologists for centuries, ever since it was discovered. The archaeological site was first discovered in 1549, when an Italian named Domenico Fontana dug a water channel through Pompeii, but the dead city was left entombed.

The First Archaeologists… : 

The First Archaeologists… Pompeii was among the earliest of archaeological excavations, tunnelled into by the Bourbon rulers of Naples and Palermo first beginning 1738. Full scale excavations were begun at Pompeii in 1748. 18th century archaeologists associated with Pompeii and Herculaneum include Karl Weber. One source calls his methods ‘smash and grab’.

What is archaeology? : 

What is archaeology? "[Archaeology] is not what you find, it’s what you find out." David Hurst Thomas

Giuseppe Fiorelli : 

Giuseppe Fiorelli Giuseppe Fiorelli became Inspector of Excavations at Pompeii in 1860 and Superintendent in 1863. He is known as a pioneer of modern archaeology because of the methods he introduced in the excavations at Pompeii. Numbering houses Systematic excavation Top-down excavation Plaster casts

Slide 21: 

Michele Ruggero

August Mau : 

August Mau Another important contributor to investigations at Pompeii was the German archaeologist Augustus Mau, who originally worked on inscriptions from Pompeii, but whose main interest was art and architecture. Mau made a study of the frescoes of Pompeii and classified them into four styles…called the First, Second, Third and Fourth Styles!

Vittorio Spinazzola : 

Vittorio Spinazzola Spinazzola used photography to record the stages of his excavation. Spinazzola was Superintendent of Excavations between 1910 and 1923. Like Fiorelli, he excavated carefully and systematically, however, rather than clearing whole blocks, Spinazzola excavated streetscapes to reveal the external appearance of buildings.

Slide 25: 

Vittorio Spinazzola

Amedeo Maiuri : 

Amedeo Maiuri Maiuri was Superintendent of Excavations from 1924 to 1961. He oversaw an extensive program of excavation, interrupted by World War II when Pompeii was damaged by Allied bombing. Maiuri's great enthusiasm for the site and the important buildings he uncovered, attracted many tourists and made Pompeii well-known internationally. Maiuri used mechanical equipment to clear away debris from earlier excavations and to assist in areas that had been considered too hard to excavate. He protected some excavated buildings by erecting roofs over them.

Fausto Zevi : 

Fausto Zevi Zevi, Superintendent from 1977, halted excavations and concentrated instead on conserving and recording the buildings that had been uncovered, resulting in around 1800 photographs.

Pier Giovanni Guzzo : 

Pier Giovanni Guzzo Guzzo became Superintendent in 1995. He has overseen several important developments. He negotiated with the Italian Government to keep more of the money earned from tourist admissions, trebling the annual funds available for the site to 9 million dollars. He has attracted international teams of experts to conduct investigations and conservation projects.

Dr Sarah Bisel : 

Dr Sarah Bisel An American physical anthropologist, who studied the physical remains of ancient humans Her work at Herculaneum was ground-breaking She studied skeletons found in the harbour-side area of the town. X-rays and bone analysis revealed much about the health and nutrition of Herculaneum’s population.

Estelle Lazer : 

Estelle Lazer An Australian archaeologist, famous for her work at Pompeii She spent seven seasons (1990s-2000s) studying skeletal remains at Pompeii She has written books on her findings, as well as textbooks for Australian students

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