After Mycale… : After Mycale… Greece
479BC - 440BC The Delian League : The Delian League Origins: After Mycale, the Ionian Greeks looked to Athens to secure their independence from Persia. Sparta retreated back to its own affairs, and Athens took leadership of the war against Persia.
Aims: To liberate Greek city states from Persian rule, to maintain Greek freedom, and to gain power and wealth for Athens. Delian League Pt 2 : Delian League Pt 2 Organisation: Formed in 477BC at Delos. All members were equal, but in reality Athens had the most power. Money was paid to a treasury run by Athens.
478BC Byzantium retaken. Cut off Persian garrison in Thrace.
475BC Eion recaptured. Important strategic victory.
468BC Conflict on coast of Caria.
468BC Major victory at Eurymedon River Delian League: personalities : Delian League: personalities 1) Cimon. Son of Miltiades. Very able general. Defeated Persia at Eurymedon River. Big fan of Sparta. Helped put down helot revolt in 462BC. Ostracised 461BC.
2) Aristides the Just. Fought at Marathon. Archon 489BC. Ostracised 482BC but fought at Salamis and Plataea, Helped organise the League and assessed the tribute paid by members. Delian League to Athenian Empire : Delian League to Athenian Empire The League began as an alliance.
The Persian threat was largely gone by 466BC, almost totally by 449.
Athens became more domineering over other members.
In 454 the treasury moved to Athens.
By 450 most members were subjects of Athens. Athenian Imperialism : Athenian Imperialism As time went on, Athens became more imperialistic.
Members were expected to pay tribute and obey Athens’ orders.
Those that refused would be threatened or punished, eg. Boeotia 447BC
Money went to Athens to pay for city beautification
By 440BC the Delian League was the Athenian Empire Athenian Democracy: the Thetes : Athenian Democracy: the Thetes Thetes were the lowest class of Athenian citizens who originally made up three-quarters of the population.
They were small-scale farmers or craftsmen and could even be landless men.
During the Persian Wars, the thetes served in the Athenian fleet as the upper row of oarsmen on triremes.
Leaders such as Aristides felt that the thetes should increase in status as they were the most important rowers. It was important to keep this class of people happy.
To do this, Athenian democracy became more radical – poorer people gained more rights. Athenian Democracy: Ostracism : Athenian Democracy: Ostracism Ostracism meant that any Athenian could be sent into exile for ten years if they were regarded as being too powerful and/or dangerous. Their family was allowed to stay in Athens and their property was not confiscated. The first ostracism occurred in Athens in 488 or 487 BC Ostracism : Ostracism Athenian Democracy: the Citizenship Law : Athenian Democracy: the Citizenship Law In 451 BC Pericles introduced a law that restricted citizenship to those who were born of Athenian parents.
The purpose of Pericles' law was to strengthen the position of the Athenian citizen.
The growing power of Athens at this time was a source of pride, and Pericles wanted to restrict civic benefits to Athenians.
This law also improved the position of Athenian women, for the men were now forced to marry within their own state in order for their children to be citizens.
One of the results of Pericles' law was that it created a barrier between Athenians and others. After the Wars: Athens and Sparta : After the Wars: Athens and Sparta The victory over the Persians continued the development of Athenian democracy.
Other Greek states either joined the new Athenian alliance or were envious of the rise of Athens.
The Athenians were the supreme power in the Aegean.
There was a massive expansion in the trading wealth of Greece.
The Greeks recovered the Ionian coast.
The slave market in Greece was flooded with prisoners of war from the Persian empire. This made slaves cheaper.
There was a cultural revolution in Greece reflected in the works of Aeschylus and Herodotus.
Conservatism increased in Sparta. Sparta tended to keep to itself after the victory. After the Wars: Persia : After the Wars: Persia The Persians did not regard themselves as being defeated as they had achieved their main objective, which was the destruction of Athens. The Persian empire continued on as much as it had before its invasion of Greece.
Xerxes' invasion had been costly for the Persians in terms of men and materials, but it did not cause any major economic decline in the empire. The Peloponnesian League : The Peloponnesian League Nature
Sparta and her allies
Permanent and long lasting (6th – 4th century BC)
No secession allowed
Security for members
Used against helots
Supplemented Sparta’s small population The Peloponnesian League : The Peloponnesian League 2) Composition
Only Sparta could call a meeting of the Congress of Allies, which only met when needing to discuss a question of war.
The congress comprised two equal bodies: Assembly of Spartiates, and Congress of Allies - each state had one vote.
If both bodies agreed then the whole alliance was committed to the policy.
The League was defensive and no member could undertake an aggressive war without approval from the League's Congress.
Member states could make war with each other but not while League forces were outside their own area.
The commander-in-chief was always a Spartan general. The Peloponnesian League : The Peloponnesian League 3) Activities
From 554 to 500 BC, the League was extremely active.
During the Persian Wars, the League stopped Aegina from doing business with Persians.
Sparta prevented the Peloponnesus from having democratic government. It feared that if the other states became democratic, Sparta would not be able to maintain its own oligarchic position and power. Spartan responses to Athenian Imperialism : Spartan responses to Athenian Imperialism Thucydides claimed that the Peloponnesian War (431- 415 BC) was inevitable because of the fear Sparta had of Athenian power.
He suggested the Spartans' fear of Athens had grown because: Slide 18: After the defeat of the Persians, Athens had been growing more powerful
From 460 BC, relations between Athens and Sparta had become strained.
Hostility had developed between Athens and Corinth, Sparta's important ally.
Sparta disliked the Athenian empire as most Greeks believed in the autonomy of each polis.
The growth of Athenian democracy was in direct contrast to Spartan oligarchic politics.