Propaganda and Terror in Nazi Germany

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CONTROLLING A NATION : 

CONTROLLING A NATION PROPAGANDA, TERROR AND REPRESSION IN NAZI GERMANY

PROPAGANDA : 

PROPAGANDA Information, ideas, or rumours deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.

TERROR : 

TERROR Violence committed or threatened by a group to intimidate or coerce a population, as for military or political purposes.

REPRESSION : 

REPRESSION Keeping under control.

Propaganda in Nazi Germany : 

Propaganda in Nazi Germany The Nazis took the art of propaganda – of persuading people that they were right – to a new level.

Hitler’s View: : 

Hitler’s View: “Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it” “The victor will never be asked if he told the truth.” ““How fortunate for leaders that men do not think.”

Josef Goebbels : 

Josef Goebbels Hitler appointed his faithful follower, Dr Josef Goebbels, as “Minister for Propaganda and National Enlightenment”

Goebbels’ Task: : 

Goebbels’ Task: 1) To ensure nobody in Germany could read or see anything that was hostile or damaging to the Nazi Party. 2) To ensure that the views of the Nazis were put across in the most persuasive manner possible.

Propaganda is generally an appeal to emotion : 

Propaganda is generally an appeal to emotion There are many techniques to make people believe propaganda…

Slide 10: 

Attack the opponent, not the argument Demonise the enemy The Common Man Approach The ‘Big Lie’ Black & White ‘Join the bandwagon’ Appeals to prejudice Appeals to fear Appeals to authority Tireless repetition Name-calling, insults Half-truths Generalities – ‘Yes We Can! Flag-waving Disinformation Scapegoating Over-simplification Slogans Stereotyping

Themes in Nazi Propaganda : 

Themes in Nazi Propaganda Anti-semitism Anti-communism Anti-democracy Purity of the Aryan race German superiority Idolisation of Hitler –’Cult of Personality’ Anti-pacifism and pro-militarism Heroic, epic imagery Anti-Versailles Links with Germany’s past

Slide 16: 

60000 RM This is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the Community of Germans during his lifetime. Fellow Citizen, that is your money, too.

Terror and Repression in Nazi Germany : 

Terror and Repression in Nazi Germany The Nazis relied on fear to maintain control over Germany.

Concentration Camps : 

Concentration Camps Prison camps for political prisoners, and ‘undesirable’ Germans.

Network of Terror : 

Network of Terror The first concentration camp, Dachau, was set up soon after the Reichstag fire. By 1939, there were six in Germany. 225,000 people were interned for political crimes in those six years. By 1945, that number increased to 1.6 million. Up to 10 million were killed in extermination camps.

Slide 26: 

Prisoners included: Communists Socialists Trade unionists Gays Beggars Prostitutes Alcoholics Journalists Liberal politicians

Gestapo – Hitler’s Secret State Police : 

Gestapo – Hitler’s Secret State Police The official secret police force, under the authority of the SS.

Slide 28: 

Goering created a political wing of the police to target enemies of the Nazi regime In 1934 it came under the control of the SS In 1936 Heydrich became head of the Gestapo In later years there were 45,000 agents and over 160,000 informants They had a reputation for using torture and intimidation

Stormtroopers/ Brownshirts – Hitler’s SA : 

Stormtroopers/ Brownshirts – Hitler’s SA Nazi militia created in 1921 as an armed wing of the Party. Used to instil fear in political opponents.

Slide 30: 

Created in 1921 to scare Nazi opponents Consisted of disillusioned ex-soldiers Led by Ernst Rohm, a former officer 170,000 members by 1932, 2-4 million members by 1934, due to the Depression Seen as an embarrassment by 1934 Purged in 1934, over 400 executed, including Rohm. Put under Lutze’s control. Lost its dominance to the SS in Nazi Germany. Used for racial violence (e.g. Kristallnacht) or for Nazi rallies

The ‘Defence Squadron’ – Hitler’s SS : 

The ‘Defence Squadron’ – Hitler’s SS An elite military unit of the Nazi party that served as Hitler's bodyguard and as a special police force.

Slide 32: 

Formed in 1921 as Hitler’s personal bodyguard Under control of Himmler from 1929 Wore black uniforms and had to pass a racial test 52,000 members by 1933, 800,000 by 1944 The SS led the purge known as the Night of the Long Knives It had a sinister and secretive reputation In charge of police and concentration camps Formed special army units in WW2 Feared by ordinary Germans

Opposition to Nazism : 

Opposition to Nazism Obviously, there weren’t many vocal opponents of Hitler…to speak out was to risk your life. However, some Germans did stand up to the Nazis…

Slide 34: 

Some members of the Left still met secretly A few army officers remained opposed to Hitler; throughout his rule there were many assassination and putsch plots, but none succeeded Some young people formed anti-Nazi groups Some religious figures spoke out

Slide 35: 

The Swing Kids Teenagers who opposed Nazi culture by listening to jazz, wearing long hair, copying US culture, refusing to join the Hitler Youth, and saying ‘Swing Heil’ to mock the Nazis. 300 were arrested and punished in 1941.

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