WW1 - Home Front

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Home Front in Britain and Germany

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By: setkind (121 month(s) ago)

Home front

Presentation Transcript

The Home Front : 

The Home Front Just as soldiers had to fight the war on the battle front, so civilians had to ‘fight’ on the Home Front For the HSC, we must look at the Home Fronts in both Britain and Germany

Total War : 

Total War A term we have seen already: Warfare that mobilises all sectors of society – military (soldiers) economic (money) political (government) social (people) Think of an example for each – for both Britain and Germany

Civilians : 

Civilians What is a civilian? According to Wikipedia: A civilian under international law is a person who is not a member of his or her country's armed forces. That is – you or me or anyone not serving in uniform.

Britain in 1914 : 

Britain in 1914 Population: 50 million Ruler: King George V Capital: London Army size: 250,000 Alliance: Triple Entente Strengths: Naval power, large empire, isolated from European mainland Weaknesses: Second in industrial output to Germany

Germany in 1914 : 

Germany in 1914 Population: 65 million Ruler: Kaiser Wilhelm II Capital: Berlin Army size: Over 3 million (conscription) Alliance: Triple Alliance Strengths: Army power, highly industrialised Weaknesses: Small empire, second to Britain in naval power

Britain and Germany : 

Britain and Germany Brainstorm some similarities and differences between the two largest European powers in WWI.

Recruitment : 

Recruitment Persuading people to volunteer, or enlist in the armed forces How could you make people apply for a job where there is a fair chance they will be killed or injured??

Recruitment : 

Recruitment Kitchener’s recruitment campaign was very successful. 33,000 men joined per day. By the end of the year, half a million had joined up. 2.6 million joined by 1916. Requirements, 1914: Height: 5ft 6in (1.67m) Chest: 35 inches (89cm) Age: 19-30 Requirements, 1916: Height: 5ft (152cm) Age: 18-40

Recruitment : 

Recruitment

Recruitment Posters : 

Recruitment Posters

Recruitment Posters : 

Recruitment Posters

Recruitment : 

Recruitment What ideas and concepts did WW1 recruitment propaganda emphasise? How are they different from recruitment methods today?

Conscription : 

Conscription Compulsory enlistment in the armed forces. Before WW1, all major powers except Britain had conscription. Lord Kitchener introduced it to Britain in 1914.

Conscription : 

Conscription Germany: Thanks to conscription, Germany had a massive army – figures differ but the total was over 3 million in 1914. Around 11 million men served during the war. Britain: 3 million men volunteered to join before 1916. Heavy losses led to conscription. ‘Kitchener’s Army’ was at first only made up of single men, but soon all men up to age 50 were enlisted. 9 million served total.

‘Conchies’ : 

‘Conchies’ Pacifists believe in peace. Sometimes they are called conscientious objectors. They refuse to fight for moral reasons. 16,000 British men refused to fight in WW1. Some performed non-combat duties. 1500 refused to do anything. These men were called ‘absolutists’ and were often forced into military units or jailed.

Censorship : 

Censorship Censorship is government control of information In WW1, both sides placed a large number of restrictions on civilians Newspapers could not print news that might affect public morale The government had to OK all war reports All soldiers’ letters were read and censored

Censorship : 

Censorship Censored letter

DORA : 

DORA Defence Of the Realm Act A set of emergency powers passed by the British govt, without debate, on August 8th 1914. It gave the government sweeping powers

Slide 19: 

no-one was allowed to talk about naval or military matters in public places no-one was allowed to spread rumours about military matters no-one was allowed to buy binoculars, or fly kites no-one was allowed to trespass on railway lines or bridges no-one was allowed to melt down gold or silver no-one was allowed to light bonfires or fireworks no-one was allowed to give bread to horses or chickens no-one was allowed to use invisible ink when writing abroad no-one was allowed to buy brandy or whisky in a railway refreshment room          no-one was allowed to ring church bells the government could take over any factory or workshop the government could try any civilian breaking these laws the government could take over any land it wanted to the government could censor newspapers the government introduced British Summer Time to give more daylight for extra work opening hours in pubs were cut beer was watered down customers in pubs were not allowed to buy a round of drinks

Propaganda : 

Propaganda Propaganda is any information designed to persuade or influence an audience. It usually appeals to emotions and prejudices...especially strong ones Such as...

Propaganda : 

Propaganda How does this British poster work as propaganda?

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